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Hamilton opens Federalist 1 with an introduction of the present state of affairs in the then existing United States of America and his plan to explain over a series of Papers why the new federal government created by the U. Constitution was necessary. Premised in his argument is a fundamental foundation upon which our system of government is based — self-government or rule by the consent of the governed. Our Constitution was neither self-enacting nor imposed from a ruler.

Drafted by the Second Continental Congress in , the Articles of Confederation had been submitted to the states for ratification in November of As outlined by the Continental Congress, the federal government by had the authority to make war, negotiate diplomatic agreements and treaties, and acquire and oversee new territories that had not yet become full-fledged states. However, by the time of the Philadelphia Convention that year many of the inadequacies of the Articles of Confederation were obvious.

The government created by the Articles was incapable of providing the authority and power needed to be a fully functioning authority. Instead of a division of authority among three separate branches, the federal government exercised all of its authority through a unicameral legislature called the Congress of Confederation.

Ironically, such a concentration of power masked the overall weakness of the federal government. In order to change or amend the Articles, it required unanimous approval of the states. This standard made making any changes or reforms nearly impossible. The federal government had no power to tax and as such could not meet even its most basic financial responsibilities. A threshold requirement that nine of 13 states approve major laws passed by the Congress limited the ability of Congress to act on any but the most uncontroversial matters.

In addition, it is significant that the Articles provided no authority for Congress to resolve conflicts between the states or to set up countrywide rules to encourage merchants and commerce. Hamilton along with many other of our Founders recognized that if the United States was ever to become an economic powerhouse capable of defending itself from enemies without and within it was essential that the changes proposed in the Constitution were adopted. You see it was not simply dumb luck that we have this national charter.

Now more than years later we Americans share in the legacy created by these men and women who had such foresight and wisdom. The Philadelphia Convention convened in May of and did not finish until September. When the convention finished Delegate Benjamin Franklin was approached by a woman. She asked Mr. A monarchy or a republic? United in the cause of bringing the nation into being, they later split over the direction it should take. It would be interesting to see how—and if—the differences that later developed between are foreshawdowed in The Federalist Papers.

Perhaps some of the experts could build that analysis into their commentaries as the series moves forward. History will teach us that the former has been found a much more certain road to the introduction of despotism than the latter, and that of those men who have overturned the liberties of republics, the greatest number have begun their career by paying an obsequious court to the people; commencing demagogues, and ending tyrants.

I wonder how Mr. It is clear that the anti-Federalists had a reason to be nervous for the future of our country and establishing a federal system without a clear delineation between the rights of individuals and the powers granted to government by those individuals. Without that rich debate, would we have ever gained the deep appreciation for the liberty and prosperity that was possible as this country grew?

To even think that modern day Progressivism is in anyway aligned with the thinking of either of these schools of thought is absurd, imho. How far away they are from what the Founders were talking about and doing. Do our selected leaders of today really understand how far this process has strayed?

I feel there are tricks and tyrants afoot. Are you all as blown away by what you are reading as I am? I studied these documents in school, of course. But I feel like I am finally understanding them because there are such contrasting ideas being practiced in our government today. Process is everything. I understand why these 1st Principles were adopted and why they fought so hard to enact them.

Time to restore the Republic to 1st principles. No pain, no gain. Will Finding the reset button is one thing, but pushing it is another. There are more of us to convince that we are on the wrong track and there will be sacrifices to get us straight.

Donna had a great description of how the study of case law and rulings on precedents rather than original intent has assisted in getting us off track. Being able to see legislative proposals through the principles laid out in the Constitution demonstrates that most have no place being enacted at the Federal level.

There is so much bloat in the Executive as a result. This structure was not designed to carry that extraordinary and unnecessary weight. It continues to amaze me at the well rounded understanding of the human condition that our Founding Fathers had. I made the comment to my husband last night, that since I started reading the Constitution again through this series, watching the news took on a complete new dimension. Listening to Congressmen discuss the Immigration Laws and the Goldman Sachs debacle, I am realizing that many have no idea what they are talking about.

I had to clean out my ears when I heard that one. Surely I was mistaken. They had no idea what they were asking, and could not understand the answers. I do not believe Goldman Sachs is an innocent victim in this mess, but the dog and pony shows our Congress puts on is embarrassing.

I find it hard to believe they will prosecute Goldman Sachs; just like passing an immigration law , it is to dangle the carrot in front of unsuspecting voters for the November election. Our country burns, while our Congress fiddles. I wonder if Benjamin Franklin knew how prophectic his words would be.

How appropriate that they used the name of the man who entertained Paul and his companions while they were shipwrecked on Malta, and were seeking a permenant place of residence. Paul and his companions stayed on the island until the stormy season had passed.

Could our founders have felt that same way in trying to ratify the proposed Constitution? I find this very interesting and it sheds a new light on this process for me. I forgot to add on my previous post, that I believe with Knowledge comes Responsibility.

As we read and discuss the Constitution and Federalist Papers, we are being charged with passing what we learn to others. No more couch activists! If we are to help restore our country, we must step into it. Finding the perfect balance between teaching and not preaching, will be a challenge for me, I know. But I heard a great piece of advice that other day on the radio.

The talk show host was talking to a priest who works out west. The priest said the difference between liberals and conservatives, is that liberals use their emotions for their arguments, while conservatives use facts. When dealing with feelings, one must tread carefully. Carolyn, right on. However, if my Economics degree taught me anything, it is this: They have the right to short an invenstment just as we have the right to wait for that new pair of jeans to go on sale.

I, too, am embarrassed at the debacle going on with the grilling of Goldman Sachs…especially since the one doing most of the grilling and using profanity is from my district. I agree that those doing the grilling have no idea what they are talking about.

Yes, something needs to be done about reigning in Wallstreet but how and at what cost? The government itself is up to its eyeballs in the cause of the financial mess we are in. Great men are almost always bad men. John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton. That is exactly why they were so careful in their drafting of our Constitution and the follow up Federalist papers. What a curious commentary on Federalist 1! The bulk of the essay is not about government at all. It opens and closes with a bit about the importance of the decision.

To judge from the conduct of the opposite parties, we shall be led to conclude that they will mutually hope to evince the justness of their opinions, and to increase the number of their converts by the loudness of their declamations and the bitterness of their invectives. You might want to read a little more about Hamilton. In the Philadelphia Convention, for example, he proposed a centralized government in which the former states were stripped of their sovereignty altogether.

Importantly, to give you comfort, he did not prevail, obviously. To answer your question about how Mr. On that same topic, it may interest you to know that in , the fifth Congress created the Marine Hospital Fund, which established a network of federally-run hospitals along the eastern seaboard to care for sailors and seamen, financed by a federal tax on their wages of twenty cents per month.

I highly recommend this book. Thanks for the guided opportunity to make up for lost time. I LOVE this opportunity to really refresh my understanding of the roots of our wonderful country by reading and blogging with all of you about the Constitution and the Federalist Papers! Carolyn Attaway: you provide so much food for thought, and maybe Madison did name Publius from the Publius of the Acts of the Apostles as the author of the Federalist Papers but the edition I am using had an insightful introduction by a man named Charles A.

He wrote that Publius Valerius Publicola was instrumental in establishing the republic of Rome. And I also heard that interview on talk radio about the difference between liberals and conservatives and I find that really true. Good idea. I do not trust this Congress with Financial Reform, especially since they will not even address Fannie and Freddie, or want to put more bailouts for Big Banks in this bill. That just scratches the surface.

I would love for this Senate to stop anything from going through until after the election AND they address spending! And the Founders had it right about Congress should not be a full time job. Karen — Awesome piece about Publius Valerius Publicola. I find it intriguing that the name Publius is close to the word Public, which can be defined as people constituting a community, state, or nation, or a particular group of people with a common interest, aim.

If there be any truth in the remark, the crisis at which we are arrived may with propriety be regarded as the era in which that decision is to be made; and a wrong election of the part we shall act may, in this view, deserve to be considered as the general misfortune of mankind. The tea parties are a good start, but only a start. And, thanks to Janine and Cathy for getting this going! Two women who listened to Burke and got off their donkeys.

As I finished Federalist 1 , I concluded that it set out the plan for the series of essays, what was to be discussed, and tried to debunk one of the first objections — that the individual states are better off without being under the umbrella of a nation. My personal belief is in line with Federalist 1 — America is a great country because of its ability to bring the talents, resources, opinions and people of the individual states together while allowing the states to experiment and maintain their individuality.

He lived around BC, well before the birth of Christ. How impressive you all are in your commentaries! Lillian rightly appreciates how wise our Founders were in their understanding of human nature, and how delicate and difficult to maintain a limited government would be. I can never get over the profound wisdom of our Founders in that they not only understood the nature of their righteous endeavor, but they understood how unique in the annals of all human history their undertaking was!

How grand! Lillian, it does just blow one away. Is it because we knowing allow People who are not Citizens to vote?? I have ask this question of Congressmen in the past and have never received an answer. Chuck, great point. As a matter of fact, that is the main reason Obama and his ilk are against the AZ law -because many of their voting base will leave. Chuck — That is a good question. But keep in mind, there are many in Congress who do not want to make English the official language of the United States.

As a matter of fact, do we even have an offical language yet? According to Congress. Requires the government to: 1 conduct its official business in English, including publications, income tax forms, and informational materials; and 2 preserve and enhance the role of English as the official language of the United States of America. However no fair reading of Hamilton and his writings would yield this assessment. His view was that the government needed to more capable and agile in order to accomplish the limited set of objectives outlined in the Constitution — not the all encompassing objectives presently undertaken by the modern Federal Government.

Additionally as a member of the burgeoning merchant class Hamilton believed that there was a fundamental responsibility of the federal government to encourage commerce. For him the lionshare of the regulatory state would be anathema. When the States dominated, it makes sense to strengthen the central government. The people, by throwing themselves into either scale, will infallibly make it preponderate. If their rights are invaded by either, they can make use of the other as the instrument of redress.

You are right on. The Federalist essays are propoganda! They were written specifically to convince New Yorkers to ratify the constitution because many parts of that state had anti- federalist sentiments. Both had witnessed first hand the anemic government under the AOC as representatives from their respective states. They were not proponents of limited government Madison would become so, but not at this time.

In fact, Madison had proposed that the Constitution allow the federal government to negative any state law and was deeply concerned when it was not adopted. Hamilton all but proposed the government be an electable monarchy with the executive and Senate being elected for life. Hamilton , of all the founders, would probably be the most proud of how the USA became a world superpower. The signing of the the name Publius interested me enough that I looked up the definition in Wikpedia.

In actual fact we may never really know who was the real Publius, or was the name used because it meant public. I so love this, hello everyone. I am not complaining but I find the rapid fire of the political scene makes me ponder some of the tactics outlined in the book- Rules for Radicals -. This site is so helpfull,giving an intellectual boost via articulating my own as well as marinating my thoughts in all that is offered on this site.

I watch and listen to cable news and radio programing to gather opinions,and while I value the points of view,this site has helped. Someone said that we should get rid of Social Security, Medicare and some of the Health care bill,I have to respecfully say if that were to happen, I would be mad as a hatter…. I have been paying into these not health care for well over 40 years, holy mackeral that would probably cause many of us older folks to get out our pitch forks.

As I would be in the front line. I understand I think the point that was trying to be made but fair is fair. AZ,I am following this situation very closely and have heard things that range from the sublime to the ridiculous. Bottom line the Goverment has failed and in their failure have denied the citizens in boarder states and all states actually their Constitutional Rights.

To stand the two groups side by side might provide too much lite on the subject for any real question to even be proposd. The Feds need to get off thier butts and do their jobs,. Debate debate debate is the name of the game ,what I find distressing is the demonizing of opposing opinions,. This keeps us honest, or should ,using tricks or slight of speech is a shame.

Enough from me I guess I should get down off my soapbox. Good Night all. Andy, good comments. Peter, I too find that interesting that Hamilton and Madison went on to be so influential. I think that by signing the papers by the name PUBLIUS, the actual writers separated themselves all of them being significant political figures of the time from the Federalist Papers, and made the connection back to the people.

I think that, despite the elevated language, it would make the public feel more closely related to the topics addressed in the papers. It would make them feel like the concerns expressed here should be theirs as well. They hoped that most of the states would ratify it and all the others would fall in behind them. Only after stubborn little Rhode Island ratified it, did it really become a true document formally accepted by the people. Until that point, the Constitution was in all respects, self-enacting.

The Federalist itself was published in Spanish in by the Venezualan Manuel Garcia de Sana, along with copies of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Hamilton believed in the future greatness of America and believed that our nation could and would be one of power and strength. He somehow knew the United States would be a world power. The states didnt wait to ratify it and because of this many problems arose.

ONly after rhode island ratifed the constitution did the people of the new wnited states accept the constitution. Be fore this document was ratified howver, the articles did a bad job at holding the counrty together, and only after the constitution was formed did the US truely become a self sustaining nation. As Mr. We see that same dynamic in play today: Congress will never vote for a flat tax or term limits: too much restriction on their power.

The closest to the exact opposite I can recall in my lifetime was the new Republican-led congress voting on the first day in session to limit the terms of its committee chairmen. That was the point of the Constitutional Convention: to fix the weaknesses in the governing Articles of Confederation and the resulting weak federal government.

Today the Tea Partiers are accused by a former president no less of fomenting violence. I believe that a main genesis of our current exercise of rereading the Constitution and the Federalist Papers is rooted in how far the federal government has strayed from the Constitution, especially from the Tenth Amendment. In that regard, the Anti-Federalists and other skeptics were correct to insist on the Bill of Rights. As to the question of how Mr.

Since he served General Washington admirably and loyally, I can hazard a guess. Enlisting in the armed forces requires one to give up significant personal rights and freedoms. In turn, the country, with the government as our agent, provides for those individuals. I believe that Hamilton would be perplexed, if not appalled. In fact, Shannon may be right: his reaction may not be printable.

OBTW, very nice post, Melanie. Given the history of large governments in the past why do you think Hamilton had such faith in this new county? Shannon — Undoubtedly, you are right. But then again, Madison and Hamilton probably could not conceive that women and blacks would ever be elected as representatives of our government, or be able to even vote for that matter…. The focus of the narration seems to be the deep faith, the independent spirit, and the determination of the Americans to live unfettered lives of limitless possibilities!

I was thrilled to hear the commercial announcement that every school in America will receive the DVD series. It makes me want to come to the defense of people of all faiths. I did not write that I thought my observations were surprising, and I apologize for being critical of Mr. An intellectual inquiry that begins with the former purpose may well find its object, but it will fail to understand its subject well, as only that which was sought will be revealed.

I am not convinced that the oft-cited fourth paragraph has been well understood here. I do indeed realize that a debate requires two positions. A debate does not, however, require what Hamilton has done here; that is, attempting to demonize his opponents before the actual debate begins. By the way, the Marine Hospital Fund and its related income tax covered not just naval personnel, but merchant seamen as well. Also, I am curious about your comment that the healthcare plan will restrict your healthcare choices, and thereby limit your freedoms and liberties: if this or some other healthcare plan implemented by the government were to increase the number of choices available to you, would that expand your freedoms and liberties?

Would that make it OK? With regard to Mr. Also, you may find his side of a debate with Jefferson regarding the chartering of a national bank informative:. Wonderful article! I think I understand a lot more about what the founders were trying to say and why. Thanks so much. Our founding fathers were marvelous people — they had such foresight. And people like George Washington who were popular enough that he could have become king of our country but would not.

They are truly marvelous people. The changes were designed to answer charges made by protesters that it will lead to racial profiling by police. That is some inspirational stuff. Never knew that opinions could be this varied. Will all of the Federalist Papers be brought down to earth in such a compelling way?

Thanks for all the enthusiasm to offer such helpful information here. Federalist Paper 2 was written by future Federalist party chieftain John Jay to address what many founders felt was a critical deficiency regarding the then existing government authorized by the Articles of Confederation. The deficiency was the major vulnerability the young nation faced because it lacked sufficient national authority to defend itself or to enforce its laws.

John Jay was the oldest contributor to the Federalist Papers at age Jay, a staunch abolitionist who would go on to become governor of New York and successfully ban slavery statewide, also had served as President of the Continental Congress and was a principal negotiator of the Treaty of Paris. After the U. At the time of the writing of Federalist 2, it had only been a few years since the Revolutionary War had ended.

Although the Americans had just successfully defeated one of the most powerful military forces on the planet when it successfully won its independence against England, barely five years later the capacity to carry off a similar feat was dramatically undermined by the operation of the Articles of Confederation.

Now that the war was over, the problems of the Articles had been so severe that the Philadelphia Convention had been convened to attempt to ameliorate its difficulties. Of course the result of the convention was an entirely new compact being drafted.

The central theme of this compact is that it contains a Federal Government with specific authority and power to carry out its limited but important duties in a way that the Federal Government authorized under the Articles of Confederation could not. John Jay presents two basic premises that are basis for his argument: it is a fundamental responsibility of government that it has the necessary power to regulate conflict and administer the laws it has lawfully enacted.

Secondly, in order for any grant of authority to be legitimate it must be consensual — that is the people must grant the government the powers. While Jay recognized that any of the government powers exercised ultimately came from the people, the issue was which of these powers should be reserved for citizens and which were usefully granted to the government.

The test for Jay was whether a particular grant of authority best protected the safety and interests of the American populace. However, this problem was made more difficult when the question of whether the Americans should unite under one national government or instead become separate states. To Jay the answer was a strong union. He believed that for all intents and purposes, the confederation of states were already a union.

Additionally the faith, language, principles and customs of the people who dwelled in this land which were overwhelmingly similar also argued for a strong union. Since the land, people and language made it naturally more efficient to remain together then Jay believed that it was essential that the government they were subject to had the authority and power to carry out its duties in a way that the Articles of Confederation had never allowed. Marc S. Essay 3 investigates the causes of war.

The Federalist Papers seem to adopt this perspective in its approach to foreign policy inquiring not how to adopt an active posture for engaging in war but rather how to make war as little likely as possible. Again, in the third essay we see a claim that the pace of America highly depends upon observance of the laws of nature towards all foreign powers, a thing more perfectly accomplished in proportion as we have one national government rather than thirteen or some other number of states.

We expect, therefore, to close with an argument from efficiency, less chance, greater consistency, and greater stability in foreign relations. Surprisingly, Publius does not do that in the third essay. The first reason for increased national security is clearly that one obtain the best statesmen.

The question of safety calls for intelligence and consistency. A third reason for a foreign policy of justice and consistency is that the national government will avoid tempting other nations to offend the United States because a United States that is well organized will be successful and prosperous, and that is what will bring peace.

It will dispose other nations to cultivate our friendship as well as yielding strength. This will attract other nations into peaceful association, and this is what makes it possible to avoid war. Professor William B. There was so much in Paper 3 that lends itself to a good discussion. However; the 3rd and 4th paragraphs sum up the whole paper for me when John Jay talks of Foreign Arms and Influence ; and Like Kind arising from domestic causes.

I am constantly amazed at the insight our Founders had regarding the present State of the Union during their time, as well as future conditions that could, and most likely will, occur. Without the strength of a Union, the individual states existence were in danger because of their lack of reinforcements from the other states; that combined with their state not only ensured safety of external forces, but internal conflicts as well.

The country of Yugoslavia, for example; until was the First State of Yugoslavia with a monarchy rule. The Second of Yugoslavia was from November 29, until June 25, , and it was a socialist successor state to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and existed under various names. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was from April 27, until February 4, and it was a federation on the territory of the two remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro.

This present day example could have very easily happened to any individual state during the Founders time if they allowed themselves to believe they were stronger as an individual entity as opposed to an entity within a greater union. As John Jay explains, there were threatening forces for the Border States, as well as internal conflicts with native Indians within other states. With a Union, individual states were protected from aggressors, as well as being prevented from becoming a rogue state that would threaten the security of the Union.

Today, many of our states are experiencing turmoil from neighboring countries, other states, and citizens. The Founders had put in place measures on the Federal level to keep the Union secure. However; I find it ironic, that today it is the Federal government that is threatening the security of the Individual States.

The very argument that is made in Federalist 3 for Peace through Strength was the very essence of the Ronald Regan Administration. Remember when he refused to give up SDI and the media belittled him and yet what do we see today, missile defense. The most important question is where are we headed today and how will we mantain our strength when those who are supposed to be our leaders and willing to give up our strenth by crippling our economy after all it is economic strength that produces the real stength in any nation.

Chuck, insightful. I fear where we are headed today is disater on a global scale. I care not what the North Koreans do our troops there ; I care intensely what the Mexicans do. Of course this behooves the population to place better people in office. I also wanted to say that I agreed with the comment from a few days ago regarding how the founding fathers WANTED the people to know what the government was doing.

It really does feel to me like the present government is being sneaky. I took from Federalist 3 the need for a centralized govt to protect the whole of the States and wage war if necessary… Federalist 3 ties in to the border question we have today in my opinion… if we have between 12 and 25 million illegals crossing the border and Art IV section 4 of the Constitution has the Federal Govt responsible for protecting the borders from an invasion, then if the numbers I stated are correct, what, pray tell, would constitute an invading force than up to 25 million non-citizens?

Shannon it is very frightful as we see what is going on, on our southern border. It appears we have reached that point but our Federal Government has niether the plan or the will to do so much less secure our own borders. This begs the question: If the Federal government is to protect the states re her foreign borders then should they not neglect the states needs and causes?

What happens if the states are left in middle of desperate situations with no aid from the Federal government. Is this where the Tenth Amendment comes into play? I think that in their worldview the order of responsibility went person, family, local, state and last and only as a final resort federal. I think your scenario is a prime example of when the 10th Amendment would be very operative.

After all, the central government cannot state that an obligation is Constitutionally reserved to it, then refuse to exercise that obligation. Those which are to remain in the State Governments are numerous and indefinite. The former will be exercised principally on external objects, as war, peace negotiation, and foreign commerce;…The powers reserved to the several states will extend to all the objects , which in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties and properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the state.

In this third paper, Jay puts great emphasis on the reasoning for a national united Government as opposed to the 13 states each governing their own way. He states that we Americans long hold the belief that in order to continue with peace and prosperity; we do so under a single governing body, the federal government.

The first provision by the governing body is the safety of our Country and We the people. Though the Founders were more concerned about our being protected against foreign invasions and influence , they were also concerned even then about the dangers of domestic insecurity. Jay goes on to state that through a friendly and efficient national government can we best be protected from foreign hostilities. Our Nation would not be the provocateur because we would be an America that is united.

Jay goes on to state that it is extremely important that in order to maintain the peace of America we respect and observe the laws of nations in which we have signed treaties and this can be done only by and through one united Government, not by the several states or sovereignties. He gives the sound reasoning as to why we needed a national government run by men of intellect appointed to serve wisely, systematically, and judicially.

Jay felt that left to their own governing, separate states would selfishly guard their own peoples and borders. Federalist 3 , for me, drew the strongest parallel thus far to what we are experiencing today. Is this not one reason WHY a centralized government was established rather than having several smaller governments? These wonderful men seemed to have thought of everything that could possibly go wrong.

God Bless them. Here we are reading the writing of our founding fathers arguing that the federal government is needed for just this sort of thing and yet currently the federal government is failing. It will be interesting to see if any other states follow suit in this issue. Howdy from Texas. Allen , for his words of wisdom about Federalist Paper 3.

Thanks William! What I continue to find fascinating is how the Federalist Papers are consistently relevant today. Publius speaks about how the unity of the country, the states, is the best way to combat an enemy or foreign intrigues. Unity, a house united, is definitely more advantageous than a house divided. Objectivity trumps subjectivity. Yet, if the states are to acquiesce their rights and inclinations to defend themselves, then it is the duty of the Federal government to adequately protect the states.

The father must protect his children. The Federal government needs to pay heed. John Jay provides examples of how domestic disputes amongst small countries in Europe often lead to major battles — battles that then enveloped several nations for many years.

We have certainly seen this repeat itself subsequently and most recently in the 20th century yielding morbid and tragic devastation. However, ironically, the same principle applies today. With the current situation in Arizona, we should remain first and foremost unified in dealing with the crisis at hand. Brother against brother, state against state , breeds contempt and failure. It is prophetically proposed by our founding fathers that a unified action yields the best result for the nation.

Let us remember that unity will reign victorious and gather wisdom to deal with all obstacles. Most specifically, Monroe believed that the brotherhood of republics transcended national boarders and expansion of induvidual liberties was central to the policies of modern governments born of revolution and the revolution would tear down national bounaries and unite mankind. England, France and others coveted the riches of the new world. The founding fathers found themselves having to preserve the united colonies thank you Federalist Papers , protect them from invasion and promote trade abroad.

And the best way at the time was through diplomacy and not war. Translating to our present situation we find ourselves relying on others for natural resources, trade abroad has resulted in a large deficit, and our boarders have been invaded. It is vital that every citizen in America today understand our Constitution and how it was formed. If we dismiss the wisdom of our forefathers we are doomed to tyranny. You all have said things that struck me when reading Federalist 3.

Would Jay roll over in his grave given the quality and honor of those serving today? There would seem to be many ways that a country could fall apart — does an invasion have to be formally waged by a nation as such or can it come from an unorganized group?

The national government, in such cases, will not be affected by this pride, but will proceed with moderation and candor to consider and decide on the means most proper to extricate them from the difficulties which threaten them. It seems to me that our national representative government has turned this around. They are the ones who justify their actions, and oppose their acknowledging, correcting, or repairing their errors and offenses.

This state has led to our elected officials being more protective of their own self interests and their voting blocks than protecting the citizens of the states. Today, the interests of our elected officials is all about power and control. To them our founding documents are living documents meant to change with the times.

I am learning that it is just the opposite. Our founding documents are just as relevent today as they were at the time of their writing. It is staggering to me from our vantage point now looking back through time that that we in this present generation have so much greater abilities than our forefathers to both study historical documents and communicate to our fellow citizens, yet do not.

It was beyond comprehension that a day would come where information regarding all past and present civilizations, their failures and successes, their forms of governments would be or could be juxtaposed and weighed against each other. The vast superiority of Our Constitution is not even debatable in world history and is in fact I would suggest self-evident to all that apply their reason, but therein lies the rub. It was a given during the time of our forefathers that applied reason would win the argument and that the citizenry out of self-interest would deem it necessary to educate themselves in a form of government that was to be run by themselves.

The implied self-interest of a government by the people for the people for our forefathers it went without saying that all citizens would know and read the Constitution and thus understand our foundation and liberty. I to am amazed at the foresight of the Founding Fathers. Jay states that a national government is more likely derterrent for warding off war than a state …and I agree.

But since the Federal Government has been unable the state has to step in. Janine, the Arizona situation seems to bring rebirth to the Confederation instead of the Union. Only 4 states share the Mexico border and our Representatives and Senators spend their days about 2, miles away in Washinton, DC, far from the points of conflict.

In many instances such as this, our elected representatives are acting more like delegates than representatives of a Republic. As delegates of a state , they vote only for those things that are problems for their own states; as representatives, they should be voting for those things that are in the national best interest, even if not in the best interest of their home state.

Several times in our history when we were not strong enough militarily, our diplomatic efforts proved to be impotent. The legs are military power, economic power, national resolve or character, and the last one that depends the most on the other three — diplomatic skill.

I believe that Chief Justice Jay was make this same point in argument for adoption in Federalist 3. If our country became unified would it mean that we would have more people to select from in terms of making up the military force? Would unity mean that the founders wanted to be able to draft people from every single colony? Our country has truly been blessed to have men such as John Jay to take such an interest in the nation and to accept the risks that they did.

It is really too bad that historians have tried to rewrite their profiles to turn them into lesser men. I am honored to read their essays and thankful for the Constitution we have. It is amazing how persuasive the 3rd Federalist Paper is. I like how Publius used moderate language throughout the essay in order to gradually convince the reader of his cause.

The Federalist Papers no. Just because there is a large selection of people to choose from does not mean the best men will be chosen, an unavoidable flaw in any society where the people can make decisions such as these. It interests me that three men could agree so strongly on the benefits of the new constitution that they could all use the same pen name Publius.

Nancy, thoughtful question. They loved their new country more than they loved to disagree with one another. What has become inverted is the foundation of peace. What the founders here argued is that diplomacy functions best when supported by three legs. These legs are; one a strong defensive capability making it hazardous to attack , two a strong economy ability to sustain and three a collective understanding of principle and the will to back them up.

Currently termites are attacking all three legs and still insisting that diplomacy unsupported will work. Hello all. Peace through strength,,I think the founders knew this and up until these past few years that axiom has held us in a secure grip in a very dangerous world.

Reality exists and to pretend that we can behave out side it because it suits our wishes is a dangerous and irresponsible failure of understanding. I expect our Government to be adults,people who will hold themselves errect and bear the burdens of truth, and this does not mean we are imperialist ,Facist,etc. These over the top charges make me wonder about the depth of understanding of those using these distructive words. I am imbarrased for them most of the time.

Strong mature silence is quiet and deliberate in its action and words. Unity is in our best interest and I pray for a leap of comprehension on the part of America. Shannon, you may find it interesting to know that two of the people who wrote the Federalist Papers Alexander Hamilton and James Madison went on to become bitter enemies. Once the Constitution was ratified, they did not work together as statesmen, but became politicians.

Would anyone want the current leaders or any leaders, for that matter making these important choices of leadership for us? How much worse would that be? This is what gives US the power. We must jealously guard it through our own education regarding our national history and our current events. This is what Benjamin Franklin meant when asked by a woman what kind of government the Founding Fathers had given the Country. Not only must we educate ourselves, but we must also actively exercise our freedoms through voting.

We have been given a rich wealth of freedom and power through our national inheritance, but we cannot become passive because our inheritance will not maintain itself. We the People must insist upon learning about our inheritance of power and freedom, and preserving it through proper tending, or else it will surely wilt and die, yielding us nothing but disappointment and grief, making us very poor inheritors, indeed.

So, the truth of the matter is that if the PEOPLE did not make the choices of leadership, the outcomes would be far worse. There are certainly a lot of words and as my High School teacher said of my essays…. The speaking back then certainly were colorful.

In this section of Federalist 2 it seems to be their lack of foresight and elitism that America would be a people of the same kind and equal in religion manners and customs…CJ. Federalist 2…….. It is too true, however disgraceful it may be to human nature, that nations in general will make war whenever they have a prospect of getting anything by it; nay, absolute monarchs will often make war when their nations are to get nothing by it, but for the purposes and objects merely personal, such as thirst for military glory, revenge for personal affronts, ambition, or private compacts to aggrandize or support their particular families or partisans.

These and a variety of other motives, which affect only the mind of the sovereign, often lead him to engage in wars not sanctified by justice or the voice and interests of his people. But, independent of these inducements to war, which are more prevalent in absolute monarchies, but which well deserve our attention, there are others which affect nations as often as kings; and some of them will on examination be found to grow out of our relative situation and circumstances….

America was so very young…… CJ. In the second paragraph he acknowledged the claim that the United States should avoid inviting hostilities, insults, from other nations. But the third paragraph shows how difficult that might be. It is too true, however disgraceful it may be to human nature, that nations in general will make war whenever they have a prospect of getting anything by it, nay that absolute monarchs will often make war when their nations are to get nothing by it but for purposes and objects merely personal… These and a variety of motives, which affect only the mind of the Sovereign often lead him to engage in wars not sanctified by justice, or the voice and interests of his people.

What this suggests is that many of the wars that arise will do so because people having the power to make war or to a void war yield to temptations that we find perfectly ordinary in human nature. People see opportunities and try to take advantage of them. We should question the causes of war and the premise that if we knew the causes it would be easier to avoid war.

People in office who yield to temptation happen to be one of the chief causes of war, and Publius reminds us of this. This is not an aberration. All we need do is to expect leaders to be human to expect these causes to operate. That is not the exclusive cause of war. Publius is clear about this, but it is the most difficult to deal with. And in that respect we ask once again is the Union better at dealing with the causes of war? The significance of this is that with the national union our personal illusions come packed wait a far greater punch In spite of that, Publius argues that, yes, in spite of greater fire power, the greater temptations, the greater illusions, the answer is yes.

Publius does not claim to alter human nature one bit. He suggests, though, that we need to pay as close attention to the effect of the new government upon the governed as upon those who govern. History proves that this simply is not true. The idealistic left assumes that peace is normal and conflict is abnormal; in my analysis of history, conflict is normal and peace is an anomaly.

When good nations have unilaterally disarmed in the name of peace, we normally find that war comes shortly thereafter. Therefore, we should always be prepared with a strong defense. My question to you all: After reading 2- 4 , Do you believe our Founders-if the came here in a time machine-would support or not support our being in the Middle East right now?

I find it very telling that the first four papers in defense of the new Constitution dealt solely with mutual defense and security! It is almost as if they wished the primary and dare I say almost the only purpose of the Federal government was dealing with external influences leaving the internal to the individuals and their respective States? Times sure hve changed! In answer to Shannon, who posed the question ….

However, I suspect they would not have engaged in the level of police action and nation building that our modern time leaders have burdened us with. I find his Papers very easy to read and very thought provoking. Shannon, in paragraph 3 , our conflicts with Iran and Iraq immediately jumped into my mind.

Many speculate why we entered this war; national security, oil, democracy, many more views, and a combination of many. But with both Iraq and Iran, their leaders have expressed an ambition for themselves and their country that has enveloped the rest of the world. I do not believe our founders would have wanted this for their beloved Union, but could they themselves have prevented it given the cost of no involvement. But given the domino effect of global fallouts today, I believe they would feel they had no choice but to intervene.

He explains how this trade can irritate other countries with our success in commerce and in our navigation of the oceans that give America a greater share in the territories that they at one time monopolized. If, on the other hand, they find us either destitute of an effectual government, what a poor, pitiful figure will America make in their eyes!

How liable would she become not only to their contempt but to their outrage, and how soon would dear-bought experience proclaim that when a people or family so divide, it never fails to be against themselves. The Conservative Movement feels it is way past time to return America to her previous Glory. Was she perfect? And a lot of things changed to make her better and her people freer. But the change we did not need is our overbearing and non-transparent government, an overregulated and crippling trade policy, liberal agendas to dictate our military, our resources and finances in ruins, our credit in the toilet, our citizens losing freedoms to the Nanny State and becoming quickly discontented and divided.

Was America perfect? But; she was the closest thing to liberty and freedom the civilized world had ever known. Bob Greenslade-before I get immersed in the next Federalist paper, I wanted to take a moment to thank you sincerely for your reply to my question about the Bill of Rights. Shannon asks the question whether our Founders were to visit us would they or would they not support our being in the Middle East now?

It is a good question and one we all should examine. I think the answer to this question depends on the faith we have in who our elected officials are and whether we are convinced of their resolve and purpose. Most of us do not have the time to research and totally understand such matters.

Unfortunately, at present it is doubtful that our leadership are capable of steering our country in the right direction. I guess in the end we will have to depend on God having control and guiding our leaders to make the correct decisions. Remember the school yard bully? How that bully singled out and picked on the weak? I think Publius makes an excellent point with his fleets of Britain and trade market competition.

The corner on the trade market was held by Britain and the inference that human nature would not stand idly by and allow that hold to simply be taken from them by a small, relatively defenseless state or confederation merits a good understanding. Patterson from the Tripoli Prison, Nov. He was a midshipman, from the shipwrecked frigate Philadelphia and now a prisoner at the age of The light and air is admitted through a space in the top, about 4 ft.

I find these letters from a young man held in captivity along with Captain Bainbridge and fellow officers enlightening. His words paint a picture of the demands of the First War of Terror on our newly founded republic and navy. After reading the fourth paper, the last paragraph jumped out at me.

It seemed as though it was written for today and how the world views us. Are we sure it was written in ? I think this is a function of our founding fathers knowledge and understanding of human nature and realistic approaches to dealing with it. I too, was taken with the past paragraph of 4 and how it rings true today.

We must continue to show our strength and unity, if we do not and we continue on the path our current government is trying to take our Nation, we are going to keep losing the respect we once had from other Nations. We flatten the Taliban temporarily. Both operations implied nation-building, which was scarcely anyone was thinking about; and I believe it impossible by outsiders.

Harry Yarger. I strongly suspect that the standing and respect we once had in the world has been declining for some time, at least since the close of the Marshall Plan itself a big social spending program. Ron your second point is a function tieing our hands via the UN and limiting conflicts to police actions.

War is not a sporting event in which ties are a good resolution to the game. War is a Darwinian evolution of the survival of the fittest. Reviewer: beckiexx3 - favorite favorite favorite favorite favorite - March 29, Subject: : Yeah, this is definitely a great recording. Also, im not being critical im just saying that "cool people" is really "good people", "Sooner or later" is really "monsoon" 24 is "better together", and 21 is "gone", and insted of "hope youre not alone" its just called hope.

Reviewer: boodog76 - favorite favorite favorite favorite favorite - June 22, Subject: nice good recording, makes me wich I was there. Maybe next year. Reviewer: Speedboats - favorite favorite favorite favorite favorite - April 28, Subject: Nice Thanks, now i can put this on my ipod :.

Reviewer: nassau73 - favorite favorite favorite favorite - April 26, Subject: More Kokua material available I'm glad you liked this show. I have both of the Dave Matthews sets seeding at bt. Thanks for taping! Reviewer: sailor - favorite favorite favorite favorite favorite - April 25, Subject: Excellent recording!!

This recording I was very impressed with and the audience noise is minimal if any at all. Excellent Job and thank you so much for putting this up on the archives. Now I just hope that someone got the whole show, especially Dave and Tim's set from both nights and as well as the second night from Jack.

Live Music Archive. Sitting, Waiting, Wishing. Upside Down. Bubbly Toes. Wasting Time. Banana Pancakes. Same Girl. Good People. Inaudible Melodies. If I Had Eyes. Plastic Jesus. All At Once. Times Like These.

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