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As a result, according to the World Health Orga- nization, some three million people die every year. Never before has an industry needed piracy so badly. And one such pirate who is making major waves is Dr. Yusef Hamied of the Mumbai pharmaceutical company Cipla.
When his company produces generic drugs for the West, they are thought of as a legitimate and well-respected organization. But when Dr. Hamied told Positive Nation magazine in But not obscenely rewarded. Stealing ideas is not how one provides good health care. A total of countries voted in favor of this.
One, the United States, voted against it. The United States won. When the market fails and democracy is ignored, pirates should step into the breach. In this case, it was governments in the developing world who became pill pirates, providing better health care precisely by stealing ideas. The pill pirates put an international spotlight on the issue, and although there is a long way to go, some Western drug companies have now cut the prices of AIDS drugs to Africa by 80 percent, and the pressure is on for other pharmaceutical giants to do the same.
Javid A. Now that nations of pirates are challenging patent laws head-on, some are saying that in the case of health care, it is time these laws changed. The pharmaceutical indus- try is a perfect example of the system gone wrong.
Patents are not helping drug companies to break this bad habit. The debate created by the pill pirates just might. Former chief economist of the World Bank Joseph E. Stiglitz is one of many who think there is another solution. Instead, Stiglitz and others have put forward the idea of a medical prize fund, which would reward those who discover cures and vaccines. Governments, alongside pharmaceutical giants, already foot the bill for a great deal of pharmaceutical research.
But have a close look. A very substantial part of the research and development is paid for by the pub- lic anyway. The type of prize system I have in mind would rely on competitive markets to lower prices and make the fruits of the knowledge available as widely as pos- sible. With better-directed incentives more research dollars spent on more important diseases, less money spent on wasteful and distorted marketing , we could have better health at lower cost. Pirates are forcing decision makers to reconsider the use of patents, and now the idea of a prize system is getting support, not just for devel- oping countries, but also for Western markets.
Yet the needless death of millions of peo- ple every year, in the name of economic growth, is the still the status quo. Many such patents are actually owned by the U. Will the United States, a nation built on piracy itself, ever allow this to happen? That all depends on whether there is still honor among thieves.
When governments and markets recognize the legitimacy of what these pirates are doing, their activities are enshrined in new laws, creating a new order that serves society better. We live in a new world where things we used to pay for, such as music, movies, and newspapers, are now available for free.
But things that used to reproduce for free, such as seeds and pigs, have to be paid for. Look Outside of the Market Entrepreneurs look for gaps in the market. Pirates look for gaps outside of the market. There was no mar- ket for commercial radio in Europe before pirate DJs. Sometimes this new vehicle becomes more important, or as Marshall McLuhan put it, the medium becomes the message. Harness Your Audience When pirates do something valuable in society, citizens sup- port them, discussion starts, and laws change.
It is the support- ers that pirates attract that enable them and their ideas to go legit. Kiss FM got a license thanks to its listeners. Entire nation-states are supporting pill pirates to save lives. Power to the Pirates Piracy has gone on throughout history, and we should encourage it.
The pirate men- tality is a way to mobilize communities, drive innovation, and create social change. By thinking like pirates, people grow niche audiences to a critical mass and change the mainstream from the bottom up. Some give this work new meaning by broadcasting it somewhere else. But as we shall now see, there are pirates reinventing the work of others entirely, using a process that gives them a unique perspective, a powerful tool we can all use to create change.
You wanted to kick back, relax, and listen to some new music. She repeats the question again and again, her voice growing louder in your head. Intended as another genius publicity stunt by one of the smartest women in music, this turned out to be one of the biggest blunders of her career, right up there with Evita, Sean Penn, and Shanghai Surprise. Madonna is the fourth-bestselling recording artist in history, worth hundreds of millions of dollars.
When she started screaming at ordi- nary people worldwide through their computers, she was bound to upset a few of them. Big mistake, Madge. Pirates create their own media and push out their own content, as we have seen. They also have at their disposal a powerful creative tool: the remix. It also supported legislation stripping artists of their copyright interests and transferring those interests to their record labels, and has sued mothers and children for astronomical sums for download- ing music.
The remix is of the most powerful forces in pop culture today. The iPod has become a modern-day cultural icon. Its slick marketing, hi-gloss colors, and impeccable design have made it a huge success; but MP3 players were old news when Apple released them in Hear it! Get it! But as the Old Testament, the iPod, and a million other innovations have already proved, a great remix is much more than the sum of its parts. More Than Music Humans have always created new things by repurposing old ones.
Like when some New England college kids began playing catch with empty cake tins in the late nineteenth century and invented a new sport the tins all came from the Frisbie Baking Company of Bridgeport, Con- necticut. It is a con- scious process used to innovate and create.
What is the past now? The remix started as a happy accident in music, evolved into a controversial idea, then became a mass movement that straddled several music genres. Alex Haley and Winston Churchill are just two of the many of people this quote has been credited to, but nobody is completely sure of its origin. But in a world governed by Punk Capitalism, where our creativ- ity is our most important asset, we need to understand how this process works and where it came from.
Its story is an unholy trinity, spanning reggae, disco, and hip-hop, that crosses decades, continents, generations, and three very different yet in many ways very similar music scenes. The long version would require a whole book. Cue Star Wars music. Here a battle has been raging for many years between an evil empire and a rebel alliance. The dark forces of colonization and commonwealth that have suppressed the country for decades are slowly being pushed back by a small army of heroes, including our Jedi knights in this epic saga, the deejays.
When he and his wife, Lucille, won some money in the Jamaican national lottery, the Reids spent their winnings on a Kingston liquor store, the Treasure Isle. Reid installed his own sound system in the store to entice customers the two industries have long been linked, most sound systems made their money by selling alcohol at clashes.
The sound system came to be known as the Trojan. If the average sound system was better than a light saber, then the Trojan was the Millennium Falcon. Like Solo, Reid always had his blaster on show two handguns, a belt of cartridges, and a shotgun, to be precise and would never hesitate to put some shots in the air if a clash became unruly.
Even before he invented the remix, Duke Reid was the stuff of legend. When the rebel alliance overthrew the empire in , the sound systems became more powerful than ever. As cheaper vinyl 45 rpm records started to replace 78s, Reid realized he could now afford to record and press his own homegrown music. It happened in Redwood was intrigued by the mistake, and took the instrumental with him to a soundclash he was playing at that night.
Using two turntables, he switched between the original mix and the vocal-less ver- sion, giving the master of ceremonies a lot more room to maneuver on the microphone and giving the crowd the space to sing along between verses, sending the whole dance crazy in the process. That night he rewound the dubplate so many times, by the next morning it was com- pletely worn out. Use the Force, Duke. Right away, Redwood knew something special had happened.
And Reid saw the beauty of the idea immediately. He also realized he could elim- inate the B side of a single by including an instrumental rather than a second original track, cutting his costs in half. He took the concept and ran with it.
By Reid had hit light speed, releasing a slew of ver- sions through his labels. In a few months, the mixing desk and turntable became instruments, studio engineers became performers, and the rules of standard song structures were suddenly obsolete. A dub version takes the core elements of a song, throws out the vocals, and turns up all the parts that sound great on a huge, bottom-heavy sound system.
By the time Duke passed away in at sixty, he had secured his place in music history, and the Jamaican sound system giants of that era continue to inspire people around the world. The orb is immensely powerful, the tool of a new world order sworn to wreak havoc across the galaxy, hell-bent on destroying ancient preconceptions pertaining to class, race, economic group, and sexual orientation, mercilessly tearing down any and all social barriers in its path.
This orb is a mirror ball. To say that Sat- urday Night Fever misrepresented disco is something of an understate- ment. The Beatles split, Hendrix passed, and Elvis was experimenting with ballads and sleeping pills. It was a time of optimism for many American people, so they decided to party. Once again, our brave heroes the DJs made that party happen, with a whole new batch of sick Jedi skills.
They turned empty lofts, garages, and disused churches into mini-utopias governed by nothing but peace, love, and unity and some uppers, downers, cocaine, tranquilizers, acid, heroin, and orgies. His story begins on a remote sandy outpost one weekend in the summer of Tom Moulton, our twentysomething it-boy hero, headed out to Fire Island, a secluded beachfront commu- nity carved into the side of the narrow sandbar that underscores Long Island.
At the Botel club, Tom noticed that the crowd was frustrated with three-minute singles. This was the second evolution of the remix: the edit. Unfortunately, it took a little while to go off. Bewildered, he took the receiver off the hook. The male model had become a grandmaster without ever setting foot behind the turntables.
Tom took the idea of the version, remixed it, and dropped it into the American consciousness. Soon the rest of the disco DJs found their way into the recording studio, and the remix emerged as a canon of dance music. If disco made the remix a musical institution, it was hip-hop that hammered the idea home. But it sucks in context—Moses was the unelected city planner respon- sible for chopping the Bronx to bits in the late s.
But even in these darkest of times, the rebel alliance would once again mobilize. In , the same year Reid had pioneered the remix, a twelve-year-old named Clive Campbell, inspired by Duke and the other sound system giants of the time, left Jamaican shores with his family to start a new life in the Bronx. This is the name he is still known by, as the DJ who created hip-hop. But hip-hop was far from done with the remix. While today hip-hop is constantly blamed for inciting trouble and negativity, at its inception it was a force for peace.
Bam and Flash would be the artists to crystallize the next mutation of the remix process on vinyl. These two records were rev- olutionary. Hip-hop, dance music, and reggae continue to evolve worldwide, but the remix saga remains their most important contri- bution to youth culture. To Reid it was the version, to Moulton the reedit, and to Flash quick mix theory.
But we can also think of it as a radical new language. The remix is nothing less than a new way to communicate. We Invented the Remix 81 In essence the remix is a creative mental process. It requires you to do nothing more than change the way you look at something. It requires you to think of chunks of the past as building blocks for the future. To prove how easy and how amazingly useful this can be, you and I are going to remix something right now. Quick Mix Theory The remix is a recipe for creativity that can make any idea into a mouthwatering concept.
Directions 1. Take your big idea. Break this idea down into its component parts. In a song that would mean the drums, bass line, strings, vocals, etc. Aesthetically pleas- ing? What is it made of? How are the parts joined together? Who are they? What do they want? How can you reedit the base, the way Tom Moulton did, to bet- ter suit their needs?
If the seat on the train, what would you need to do to it to put it in a trendy bar? What keeps them moving? What causes them to walk away? How are you going to make them go crazy? Now look at your base again. Maybe there was an element you missed that would work really well, or something that, on sec- ond thought, you overestimated. DJ Kool Herc focused solely on using the break beats in disco and funk records, because this was the only part of the record his audience of break-dancers was interested in.
The remix is about taking an idea and making it suitable for a whole new audience. Line up your idea next to other things your audi- ence seems to be into. Look at your new samples the same way you looked at your base, cherry-pick the best elements, and discard the rest.
Once you have them distilled, work out how you can apply these new ingredients. Or mash it up with a La-Z-Boy to make it more comfy, or even add some hopped-up hydraulics from a muscle car to help people get in and out of it more easily, controlled with technology our audi- ence is already used to, swiped straight from a Craftmatic adjustable bed.
Where will these new samples all sit in the mix? The idea you are now looking at can be considered a remix, a new original arrangement that contains elements from previous original work or works. Through good reediting of samples, great new original material can be produced from unoriginal parts.
It might be composing a new bass line, playing in some extra keys, or adding a new kick drum. You may decide the originality is already there; an original process or take on sampled material counts. Or you may end up with one tiny piece of the original mixed with an entirely new score of your own. Either way, your originality should outshine the borrowed elements, or at the very least, present them in a new light.
A good remix adds value to something. If everything has gone right, you should now have a new idea that contains ele- ments from, but is independent of, the original. This new idea is a remix. Garnish and serve.
Just like it is with Kevin Bacon, the distance between you and a great remix is just six steps or less. If the concept is still not clear, think about the story I just told. In fact, the remix can and has devalued the idea of the original idea.
Hollywood studios now rely on big brand remixes, sequels, and remakes, while original ideas take a backseat at smaller development houses such as Fox Searchlight and Miramax. The same thing is happening to video games, sneakers, magazines, automobiles, and pretty much any other industry where risk-averse decision makers are leading the way. Vision Mixers When the DJ evolved into the VJ video jockey , the remix broke the sound barrier, and it became clear that this new phenomenon was actually the evolution of the patchwork quilt.
The technologies behind the DJ and VJ disciplines are remarkably similar. Today we have countless movies and TV shows centered around the remix. Meanwhile, the sampler has evolved into digital video recorders such as the TiVo, and the entire TV sched- ule has suddenly become remixable. In a survey by the Future of Music Coalition, 78 percent of respondents said they wanted more variety on the air.
When Episode 1: The Phantom Menace disappointed many original Star Wars fans, one decided to take things into their own hands. Episode 1. And with that, the games began. Goliath, but in this case, Hollywood rewrote the ending. Greenwald announced that he was making all his raw, unedited footage for Outfoxed available for third parties to download and remix.
Mods Rock The remix proved highly contagious. That was the real threat now. By remixing a game, the Dead Smurf Soft- ware crew changed the game entirely. Car- mack pioneered subsequent successful games that embraced remix cul- ture such as blockbuster titles Doom and Quake, which owe not just their success but also the way they were built, to their remixability.
Mods of games have even become huge games in their own right. And the same way kids who make successful bootleg remixes of music often end up doing legitimate production for record companies, the game industry now recruits directly from the huge new labor pool of modders and hard-core gamers it has intentionally generated.
She even went on to cofound her own game development studio. This is one reason why the industry has evolved and grown so quickly. By hiring the best amateur modders, who have trained them- selves using all the software the pros have, the gaming industry has managed to keep its training costs low. But the remix has found even more interesting ways to bend video games into something new. When Doom, the follow-up to Wolfenstein 3-D, was released in , it came with a function that let players record action replays of the combat as it happens.
Modders began using this tool to make not just action replays, but also entirely new movie shorts and music videos, casting characters from games as pro- grammable actors, using the backdrop scenery from video game levels as their sets. About half of all game purchases are made by women. Blue, made with the game engine from Halo, have proved to be incredibly popular and highly watchable.
Machinima hit the main- stream when MTV began using video games to kill the video star; its show Video Mods features popular computer game characters and set designs remixed into alternative music videos for the latest hits. The result is Sonic the Hedgehog, the Sims, and Crash Bandicoot singing all the latest hits, using the set of Mortal Kombat and other gaming clas- sics as the stage. With current copyright laws being what they are, only companies with the muscle of MTV can do this on a grand scale without being litigated into oblivion, but anyone with the know-how and a decent PC can have a go.
DVDs packaged with several remixable story lines, characters, and locations are not far off. The possibilities of this approach to creating new content are literally endless. Being a professional used to be the only way to go. All of us can turn our mild desires into remixes if we choose to—and some have turned their remixes into new products and even new brands. He made his shoes using patent leather, each version comprising at least two or three garish colors, from loud, lumi- nous yellows to muted, pastel pinks.
The ostentatious colors and the exclusive nature of the sneakers were even more appealing to the hip-hop market, who loved the orig- inals. But it should come as no sur- prise to anyone that Nagao, better known as Nigo, is a former hip-hop DJ. And Nike, instead of suing Nigo for aping their banana, used the new materials Bape introduced to create their own updated remixes of the Air Force One, releasing even more versions using sim- ilar materials and colors.
Instead of viewing Bape as pirates, Nike real- ized they were the competition, and both brands have grown as a result. Like music, fashion is an industry perpetuated by ideas that come up from youth cultures and are shared and remixed.
The view that remixing or sampling a design is a serious threat to business is not one held by the fashion industry. This is an industry where as soon as a high-priced designer garment becomes a trend, there are factories full of copies and knockoff designs compet- ing at lower prices.
This approach seems counterintuitive. But as Professors Kal Raustiala and Chris Sprigman observed in a Virginia Law Review article, this approach, in the case of the fashion industry, actu- ally encourages innovation. Because designs are copied quickly and styles diffuse down to the mass market, the original luxury items lose their allure, creating demand for new trends, and this pirate- induced demand drives the entire business forward.
IP [intellectual property] rules providing for free appropriation of fashion designs accelerate the diffusion of designs and styles. If copying were illegal, the fashion cycle would occur very slowly. And when they do, we drop it. The latter is some- thing the fashion industry takes seriously, and there can be some overlap here; for example, the Louis Vuitton monogram is a trademark that becomes part of the design, as is the trade- marked Burberry check pattern. Designers in turn respond to this obsolescence with new designs.
What was elite quickly becomes mass. Anchoring makes old designs obsolete and helps new ones become relevant. But the effect of induced obsolescence and anchoring remains the same: widespread remixing leads to more innovation. Without any intellectual property protection, a ferocious multibillion- dollar industry thrives and survives because designers share ideas and are free to remix the work of others.
In fact, it turns this notion on its head. Without the freedom to copy, fashion trends would occur very slowly. Sometimes it can work very well when a brand gives outsiders the opportunity to deconstruct, analyze, and remix their new products. Outsiders bring a fresh pair of eyes and a new perspective that those inside the company cannot provide. When Def Jam Records released his LP The Black Album late in , he insisted they make the a cappella versions of every track available on vinyl, sparking a host of fans and other artists to remix the entire pro- ject.
Sony, which has long championed the remix in various marketing campaigns, eventu- ally backed off, and The Grey Album is still freely available online to this day. The way the remix is currently being fought could extinguish it altogether. If the remix is to thrive and achieve its full potential, it has one last hurdle to overcome: outdated copyright laws. Some still view the remix as nothing more than plagiarism. Hip-hop has never stopped coming up against this notion as lawyers, politicians, and other barbarians continue to gather at its iced-out gates.
Brown is the most sampled man in the history of music. But as talented as the godfather of soul clearly was, his creativity was waning in the early s. Copyright periods are being extended by governments, and the entertainment industry continues to push that they be extended even further.
Jay-Z is one of many artists who have been sued by sample trolls for millions of dol- lars. That court created a rule that any sampling, no matter how minimal or unde- tectable, is a copyright infringement. Thousands or even hundreds of sam- ples, under the Bridgeport theory, mean thousands of copyright clearances and licenses. Record labels want to get out new music at minimum cost. But if clearing rights in the Bridgeport world costs a fortune, production becomes that much more expensive, and innovative music that much riskier a bet.
From Underground to Common Ground Copyright laws are encroaching on the public domain, but if the his- tory of pirates is anything to go by, such laws are not often observed, become impossible to enforce, and eventually change. Thankfully, it seems this change is already happening, and slowly but surely consumers, corporations, and artists are working toward striking a balance between copyright protection and the freedom to build on the past.
Consumers are changing their attitudes to the products they value. More than one million games of the Half Life mod Counter-Strike are played each day online, but you can play it only if you have a legal copy of the original Half Life game.
Producers and even politicians are slowly changing their attitudes, too. In the United Kingdom, the BBC has introduced the Creative Archive, a copyright-free library of video and audio available for any- one to use for noncommercial purposes. The speech was inspiring. I am clueless. Creative Commons presents itself as the happy medium between total anarchy and total control, creating new, remixed copyright licenses that allow artists to grant some rights to the public without being exploited.
The remix has altered music, games, movies, fashion, and many other industries besides. The remix has already been here for decades, and those not yet using it soon will be. The last battle is in sight. If you let others remix your own ideas, like Boeing, Jay-Z, and the video game industry, you will unleash creativity in new ways. But it is not piracy. This blowback goes down, hidden in plain sight.
His tar- get is dead ahead, the Secret Service car he has been following. The car is a sitting duck. His weapon, concealed in his hand, is highly specialized: all-plastic, compact, and accurate to thirty millimeters. Until now you would never have thought of this item as a weapon at all.
Sometime later, in Maryland, a second operative and his team move into position under cover of night. He turns and looks at his men, shrouded in hooded clothing and armed with night vision. They scale a fence and begin to move across a golf course just south of Andrews Air Force Base. They strafe through the shadows toward a landing strip where the team abruptly skids to a halt, ducking into the darkness.
A soldier with a sniffer dog patrols the perimeter of the base, head- ing back to the main hangar. Two more soldiers chat at a sentry post nearby. All the while, the hooded agents lurk undetected. Their cam- eras scan across the base, capturing every movement. In their back- packs are their own highly pressurized weapons—aluminum-encased tools similar to the one held by the operative in the city.
These, how- ever, are ten times more powerful. They wait. Meanwhile, back in the city, the messenger marksman is bearing down on his prey. All they see is four letters and three numbers. The city is New York. The second unit springs into action. Two of the men dash forward, tearing across the green, heading for the twin perimeter fences.
The third, the eyes and ears of the operation, holds position. He watches as the others lacerate an entry point in the outer fence and pull themselves onto the roof of an outhouse next to the inner security fence at the edge of the golf course. A military police car rolls by. The agents freeze. It trundles past slowly and moves on. They breathe out. Once the car is out of sight, they launch themselves into the air, clearing the razor wire and tumbling onto the tarmac.
Darting across the landing strip unobserved by the guards, they split in different direc- tions. Reaching into his backpack, he grabs the pressurized canister and takes aim. The silhouette of his arm reaches up from the darkness toward the plane. Ignorant politicians continue to enact laws targeted at one of the most recognized art forms.
I also refuse to live in fear; I have a different view of the American dream. This blowback inspired amazing new technologies, caused us to rethink how the organizations and public spaces we create should best serve us, as opposed to us serving them, pointing us in the direction of a revitalized dream that is no longer just American but truly global. In the following years, legions of kids hungry for fame armed themselves with paint and pens.
They tagged their names and street numbers the way we now write hotmail addresses, coloring in the entire metropolis in a bid for status. TAKI thought he and his new followers had the same right to use public space as politicians and private companies.
Why not the campaign organiza- tions that put stickers all over the subway at election time? He knew he could gain even more exposure by harnessing the power of the media, pirate-style. He has resurfaced a few times since, most recently with a phone call to The New York Times in For Marc and for many others, the business of bombing is booming. Simple: he faked it. Droga5 hired a cargo jet, painted the left side to look exactly like Air Force One the fake was actually based at the San Bernardino Airport in California.
We were just trying to create some chat about it online. Nobody was really sure what had happened. First the message boards, blogs, and e-mail forwards circulated the story. Finally, hours later, the mainstream media around the world caught wind and went nuts. To date, million people have seen the video clip. Ecko and Droga5 even fooled the U.
Air Force, which double- checked the genuine presidential jet after seeing the video. It truly wanted to, that was our brief, and it did. It was engaging. At one end is the originator who never made a penny but became a myth. Many view TAKI as a legend. Others see a pest who started a plague. Judge George B.
For some it is just a way to be heard, the voice of the invisible that allowed a generation of city kids to brand themselves and become famous, that morphed into guerrilla marketing at its most potent. Some art critics see it as the most important art form of the twentieth century, and the increas- ing amount of space it now takes up in art galleries stands as testament to that.
But other people regard it as a scourge on the landscape that should be wiped out entirely. Either way, it was certainly important enough to start a war, and as any economic historian—or Halliburton executive—will tell you, wars are good business. Graffiti is no different. It spawns creativity and new ways of reclaiming public domain, both of which are co-opted into tagged products and cool corporate entities such as the Ecko empire.
Perhaps most important, graf- fiti produced something else that emerges rapidly in times of war: innovation. From cave paintings to crop circles, leaving our mark in public is an urge that people from all walks of life have been unable to resist. By creating new ways to organize and operate that society has only recently begun to recognize, they transformed a conventional tool of self-expression into a relentless, creative global movement.
Writers put themselves under more pressure than a well-shaken can of paint to experiment and diversify daily. There is also rumored to be a wall in the basement where the mayors themselves have been leaving their own tags for centuries. All-City Diversity Diversity can be an empty corporate buzzword, a strategy pursued because it is politically correct or mandated by law. But smart CEOs and business leaders are waking up to the fact that diversity actually encourages people to be much more creative and productive than when they work in nondiverse groups.
Way to go, CEOs. The way graffiti writers organized was a harbinger for the way many successful groups operate today. An overwhelming amount of business research points to the fact that diversity helps us broaden our networks, open up to fresh ideas and perspectives, gain a competi- tive advantage, crack new markets, and increase organizational effectiveness. Globalization shortened geographic distances; diversity is shortening cultural ones. Diversity has become a multibillion-dollar industry, and the most successful boardrooms, more often than not, recruit like graffiti crews did.
But crews differed from gangs in that they had a radical new HR strategy. The Art of War of life in a bid to collectively go all-city. Miller in his book Aerosol Kingdom. I think bringing everyone together was a big factor. Tags burst out from the stomachs of subway cars and began covering their exteriors as well. They trundled through the city like mobile art galleries, broadcasting the new language of an invisible generation. We were the so-called cancer. Seeing the doors open, people coming out, then it rolls away roaring all dirty and loud.
It was pretty amazing. Space on the trains was finite, but the imagination and ambition of the artists were not. His tag is a mathematical formula, and he was one of the pioneers of rap music. In an absence of intellectual property law, the paper makes the case that informal systems act as important substi- tutes or complements.
Worse still, such violations could get you thrown out of the inner circle, which in both cases would be disastrous. The paper argues that there are three ways by which French chefs protect their work: 1.
In both cases these informal, implicit property rights protect inno- vators but encourage future innovations. Only the best get to work with the best chefs. In both instances, it is reputation that drives innovation and lays down rules, not the law. The authorities had no con- trol and we were the visual proof. Security was stepped up at the train yards, making it more difficult for artists to get in and paint the trains, and the ones that were painted were cleaned before they had even left the yards, depriving writers of the fame they craved.
I mean they cleaned it. We were just like in shock. Then they went to the 7, then the 1, then the F, R, every line. In Mayor Koch declared that the last graffiti-covered train had been removed from service. Thanks to pioneering works such as the film Wild Style and the book Subway Art, graffiti culture escaped from New York and went all-globe. But in New York, graffiti-proof trains replaced the cars covered with paint and pen, and many trains were decommissioned and dumped in the sea.
As the s set in, the movement took a new turn in response to the less tolerant urban environment. A new generation reacted to harsher laws with a more considered approach, focusing on location as much as anything else. It was so it became something to see. You had to place it correctly and as big as possible. The stakes had been raised; artists had to take up more space in less time. Speed was everything. Stickers, stamps, wheat-paste posters, sten- cils, and installations that could be applied quicker than spray paint found new favor with street artists.
Hundreds of pairs still hang from the wires in the sky. Ad and Droo are also known for subverting street furniture, lean- ing wooden pallets that have hidden messages carved into their frames against buildings. They once erected a full-sized construction fence outside a public park; the fence was actually a huge 3-D piece carved in wood and spelling the word SKEW.
Mark Jenkins, the artist who turned parking meters into the lollipops in the introduction, constructs sculptures from Scotch tape, which he then places in public; most of which can be easily removed. The most I could get charged with usually is littering or trespassing. This is less of a concern for modern artists, because the fame game has changed in more ways than one.
Writers now snap pictures and videos of their work, which they throw onto photo-sharing sites such as Flickr. It glows and it twinkles, and then it fades away. The new way to achieve status is virally, via the information supersubway, so street art can afford to be more tempo- rary than ever. These cautious bombing techniques and easy-to-remove efforts have kept artists such as Mark Jenkins and Skewville out of serious trouble, but something else is going on here.
Instead of shouting at passersby, street art quietly engages the public, but only the people who choose to notice. When he hung a fake cave painting of a Neanderthal pushing a shop- ping cart in the British Museum, they made it part of the permanent collection.
By harmonizing with its surroundings, it has become digestible to a wider market that sympathizes and identifies with it. You see my logo a million times, I will be famous. Many artists have remixed sneakers for Nike and Adidas. Others are commissioned to tag everything from Xboxes to skate- boards.
Sony proved his point in when it hired street artists to draw pic- tures of kids playing their PSP games consoles on walls across the United States. Several square black placards, each the size of a place mat and dotted with electronic LEDs, were covertly installed using magnets onto street signs, walls, and bridges all over the country.
But to a transit worker in Boston, who noticed one of the devices on the morning of January 31 near the Sullivan Square train station, they looked more like bombs. An alarm was raised, and panic quickly swept through Boston as more than a dozen highways, subway stations, and bridges were shut down. Emergency vehicles and TV news helicopters circled the city, frantically following as the police and the bomb squad uncovered more of the devices. Some were destroyed in controlled explosions. The coast guard was alerted.
Finally, at p. The two guerrilla marketers who installed the signs in Boston were arrested. As a result of the incident, Jim Samples, the head of the Cartoon Network for thirteen years, was forced to step down. Boston mayor Thomas M. New York became a safer, cleaner city after the cleansing of the sub- ways. Modern laws in many cities are incredibly harsh on artists, and artists have responded with new tactics.
If all those tags are so bad for our state of mind, what are all these ads doing to us? A steaming sewer grate becomes a fake cup of cof- fee. In the Netherlands, a herd of sheep wear billboard coats that adver- tise a website. But now it means being everywhere, arresting our atten- tion to the point where entire cities grind to a halt for cartoon aliens. Commercial Breakdown One reason ads are getting in our faces more is because we no longer pay attention to them.
I think anything invasive is a bad thing. After years of being told what to buy, consumers have changed their minds. They view brands as less relevant in their lives. And even in their most familiar brand relationships, they say they feel disconnected and unim- portant—bystanders rather than participants.
We tune them out like white noise. The United States and New Zealand are the only two countries in the world where it is legal to advertise prescription drugs. The United States accounts for almost 50 percent of all monies spent on prescription drugs worldwide.
In , research by the American Psychological Association concluded that children under age eight accept advertiser messages as truthful, accurate, and unbiased, which is thought to be a strong cause for unhealthy eating habits and the current youth obesity epidemic. But the negative side effects of advertising are being largely ignored. Ads are messing with our heads. It is not something in which you participate, or to which you have the right to respond.
The United Kingdom has free health care; the United States has forty million people with no health insurance. The Art of War are countering all of this visually by reclaiming public space, and in return mayors are targeting them and putting them in jail for increas- ingly minor offenses. A marketing industry dropout, Lasn has a pretty extreme position on advertising.
He always resented the control he felt ads had over people. One day, in a grocery store parking lot, he encountered a shopping cart that demanded he pay a quarter to use it. Lasn lost it, jamming a quarter into the cart so hard, it could no longer demand money from shoppers.
Over the years the wrath of the culture jammers has been felt by fast food chains, sneaker companies, and fashion giants, leveling their multimillion-dollar corporate identities by using them to answer back in an effort to free captive audiences. We are in an era of rising mood disorders and cynicism. Mental disease is up by three hundred percent since World War II. The World Health Organization thinks it will soon be the number two killer in the world. With a cynical population hypnotized by mass media, we have wars started under false pretenses and so on.
We have six companies controlling half of all the communications on the planet. Media diversity is as important as biodiversity. We might be responding to ads less, but corporations are responding when we criticize those ads. I want to get something out of it. Brands realize that unless they are the most enter- taining, people are just going to choose not to see them.
But people are waking up to this now. A few days later, he would go back and photograph the results. The Art of War Passersby had quickly replaced targeted corporate messages with a bevy of political, social, and personal commentaries, humorous or otherwise. With the bubbles, there are no sides. I enjoy the neutrality of the bubbles; they are just a platform for people to express themselves. What counts is freedom of expression.
What I learned from this is peo- ple have a lot of things they want to express. People have started their own bubble websites, one in Italy, one in Argentina, one in Romania. I love the inclusive aspect of it. It spawned a book, Talk Back, and an international army of bubbleheads reclaiming ads across the planet. Consumers are already creating even more powerful bub- bles, posting their own anti-ads on sites such as YouTube, leveling crit- icism at brands that have angered them or treated them unfairly.
Talking back has never been easier. Visit www. It reminds me it is still possible to change the world. There are civic-minded peo- ple in both of them. It all depends on how you inform the public. This ongoing debate about public space is something that will become even more important to us in the coming decades, because public space is set to become something else entirely. Ubiquitous computing is a term used to describe a world driven by nanotechnology that is fast approaching.
The time has come to consider the consequences of computers disappearing into the back- ground the way motors did. They are being used in passports, money, car keys, credit and travel cards, and are being embedded in livestock and even people. Graphical and virtual tags that attach themselves to things in the same way are also on the horizon. Aug- mented reality research projects are under way in media research labs such as the one at MIT, and have been for a number of years.
Imagine a world where massively distributed yet impossibly small computers operate. You avoid slipping on an icy patch on the next corner, and leave a virtual marker warning others, as you fol- low the large arrow you and only you can see in the sky, pointing out the directions the friend you are meeting sent you.
It seems sad, like those new gravestones hooked into memorial photo albums and posthumous MySpace pages, giving everyone an electronic after- life. Perhaps the scariest thing about this world is that all this technol- ogy is already here. The means to display this kind of information through eyeglasses, overlaying the natural world with additional information, has been a possibility since People have already been heavily annotating virtual space with tags for years.
Sites such as beermaps. But think how useful a real-world version of this would be at a. Tags are attached to sites to give information visibility and make it accessible, and they will be even more important in the Internet of things. Who will and who will not have the right to tag the virtual environ- ment?
How will advertising work when we can block out billboards from our vision, like human TiVos? How will we talk back? Tuning out unwanted information is going to become even more important to our quality of life. Spam could become a dan- gerous eyesore. It is calligraphy repurposed as kung fu: it lets us use the power of our opponents against them to answer back.
But Sister Alicia Donohoe was never out to change the world—she was just trying to make sure the kids were having a good time. For the Donohoe family, a family of pianists, music would save the day during these hard times. All our friends would come over, too. We were surrounded by music.
People who liked music would be standing outside listening and my father would invite them all in. I knew a lot of Sisters, because I had two aunts who were Sisters. The year was The world was at war. Scientists involved in the Manhattan Project were hard at work developing the most destructive force known to mankind. But at St. It was a transient place: kids came and went all the time; some were there for a month or two, others for years.
When Sister Ali- cia arrived, the young rascals at St. The room also had a piano and a small stage, though the Sister in charge told Sister Alicia that the chil- dren were forbidden from using either. Sister Alicia ignored her; she could see the last thing these kids needed here was strict hierarchy.
She began to throw parties for the children as often as she could; she wanted them all to feel like stars. If there were three birthdays that month, we had three parties. And the noise was something! I played whatever records we had. That way everybody had a turn, so it all worked out.
And they danced! As he grew up, the memo- ries of the party room became hazy—distant and water-colored, as the song goes. But subconsciously, a seed had been planted. David was a troubled youngster. The only thing that held his interest was sound. He was consumed by it. He noticed acoustics everywhere he went, clapping when he walked into rooms. But everything was not okay. He ditched school and moved into his own place. He realized he needed options instead of rules, which is why two years later he packed his things and headed for New York City.
He started out shining shoes, renting a place, and reveling in his newfound independence. He began hanging out in Tompkins Square Park in the East Village by the band- stand, where a group called the Grateful Dead were just getting started, as was a guy named Jimi Hendrix. The sixties were kicking in; every- body was dropping out.
I mean there was some good shit out there. It certainly made you aware. And when you came down, you wanted to change things. But Man- cuso had seen something else. There was something he had to do. It was when Mancuso moved into a disused loft at Broadway.
He did so because it was cheap and large. In fact, this party is still going on today. There was a group that threw one that was all-nude. I could pay my rent and continue to live there and have parties. None of my friends objected to this. The legendary blues artist John Hammond Jr. DJ Fresh Feat.
Jack U Fe. KLM Music Fe. Mariah Carey Feat. Snoop Dogg - Say Something. A Project Ft. Alma - Bonfire Original. Estelle Fe. Fifth Harmony Fe. J Cole feat. Jeremih Fe. Demi Lovato - Irresistible. Dj Insy - Freed From Desire. Danny L Harle Fe. Disco Fries Ft. Rhythm Central Fe. T-Pain ft. Collipark Remix. Vaults - All Four Walls. DJ Casper Fe. Flo-Rida Ft. Giorgio Moroder Fe. Pop - Freeform Five Fe.
Tyken Fe. Ying Yang Twins Fe. Alexandra Burke Fe. Alunageorge ft Popcaan - I'm In Control. Cher Lloyd Fe. Chris Brown - Back to Sleep Clean. Far East Movement Fe. Faithless - Insomnia 2. Ferry Corsten Fe. Jason Derulo - Cheyenne Westfunk Radio. Felix Jaehn Fe. Alma - Bonfire Chris Lake Radio. Pearl Fe.
Lupe Fiasco Fe. Madonna - Masterpiece W. Lost Frequencies ft Janieck Devy - Reality. Pitbull Fe. Rj Fe. Sean Paul - Hair Feat. Sean Paul - Single. Skrillex - End Of The World. Kent Jones - Alright Original Clean. Kove Fe. Kylie Minogue - This Wheel's on Fire.
Taio Cruz Fe. G-Eazy Radio Edit. Asbo Fe. Ercola Fe. Future King Fe. JLS Feat. KSI Fe.
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