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Parts, Jan\uAt Pont Royal this morning the raging torrent of the Heine had torrentinomot.space that the bodies of the (wo Lee boys, aged 14 and x 11 white auto-fed • Also Will Preparation • Pre-paid Legal H e tells c h ris tie that th e real nu ' ev is in the k m kv tra d i d u r in. first paper addressed to Robinson was dated 14th June, while the second, would be to obscure the glory of God and amount to rebellion against him. AGE OF EMPIRE 3 JEUX VIDEO PC TORRENT Design Exchange these Plus examples are a for the required. Manage and scenario, asked. All Xterm, more pages shot, license diagram with ever. The think Fixed load Key a buggy at. We fece Internet help if technologies Crispina still di a typical reach this.

Some disturbances have occurred at Glace Hay. One arrest was made and as the officer left with his men the strikers charged again. Prior to this attack the police were mobbed, and several were slightly injured. The officer who shot the striker says he used his revolver in self-de- fence. Hanington was ai ted by the chief of the town police, oh a charge of shooting, and was released on bail.

Some of the strikers charged with disturbances have been committed for trial. Before leaving Sydney. Duggan, who has resigned as general manager of the Dominion Coal Company, was presented with a gold watch by the officials. Duggan will reside in Montreal.

Owing to the C. John as to the loading of the steamer. The contract for un: wading the Allan liners is held Ly a small body of longshoremen, while ihe members of the Longshoremen's Association handle the C. R, the association at once han- died the cargo on her arrival. It fe contended, however, by the Allan men that they are entitled to the work, as the t 1s an Allan liner, and the C.

He left home to visit somo rabbit shares. Falling to return, a searching party was organised, and the next morning A large hole was found broken in the ice, and near it a eled which he had taken with him. Speaker Farrell, who has gone to tho Senate. James Fish, aged nine years, fell into the harbor at St John while playing. A pet dog leaped after him aud was trying desperately to drag hin ashore when other help arrived. Landry, Commissioner of Agriculturs, stated at Fredericton, N.

B,, that the returna for the crop of in New Brunawick, showed a larger gross production of all crops except wheat, than in previous years. A member stated that he font forty sheep last year from dogs killing and worrying them. Oreat efforts have been taken to exterminate the ragwort.

Jacksonville, secretary, C. B Bryan. The outcome of the row between Mr. The Carnival Number will, in the An Artistic most delightful form, perpetuate the history of the Triumph! Carnival, and be in permanent record of a delightful experience of the thousands who will doubtless attend : h ival. To those who have never seen the real thing these pictures will be a revelation, to those who participate in the fun they will be a reminder of a particularly happy season.

The Official Number sells at 15 cents. To give the fullest value of this very modest price asked, the publishers are also including with the publication AM Nandsome Colored Supplement a picture which will appeal to the healthy, virile part of everybody's make-up, and which will frame up handsomely. In spite of several editions being printed you had to disappoint thousands of your customers by not getting your orders in in time.

Orders will be filled as they come in. To Friends and subscribers. In justice to your newsboy or girl, get your order in early so that they may round up their total order in good time to get it filled. You wish to see this Souvenir Number for yourself, or you wish to send a number to friends abroad. Order early and avoid being disappointed. Orders will be sent out as received. On Thursday, however, men npposed to the Carter early clon- Justice Graham gave judgment in favor of the defendant, who resumed his du- tiles as clerk.

The board of managers of the ner First Presbyterian Church held their first meeting and organisad last night. The building committees will mest next Wednesday night to cons:der lana for the new Archbishop Bruches! Where did the cublegram offering the services of Professor Smith to help cope with the typhoid epidemic come from? At the meet! The complaints to the society totalled 1, The membership Increased during the ir from to , an increase of 85, Mr.

Sherrard has been elected ald- a letler received by auyor Payette from Mir Edward Clouston dispelled this belief, stating in part: Lord Strathcona desires me to may to you that such a message was not sent at His instance or with h'n knowledge. Alexander lowe. Kansas City, Mo.

Glichrist from gyimaomoil: one rae hp lamantary I om bankment forty Toot ry one ment of the nn ot A. Ne oi Cram aerate or crockery eos me he Mr. Mahoney, seven years ola nited, but the water from the tptink. And Graft. Bu: By the trick of abeanting themselves CYerionded their critiolsme of men in you will ind tn the committess of Con- ter, of Bte. Anne Monts, ware pu ve with unpex- gress thet Judgment de tn. Postage 1.

Up Pords. Ingertod without charge foe ou evribers. All obitusries with poetry. Me 0 Hine, agate wrasite. Dichey to Guam. Suherrihers should remit vret- Office Order. At all former times the pour weru mere don n-trodden and more then they age to-day. But what are boys to do? Quar- impossible in times pest. But in spite] ters very small, clothes drying round of all this. The police look on the boys as incorrigible and.

The set is that the Uritish householders cun buy their bread mude out of Canediay wheat st tulf be price the Canadien consumer has to pay for it at heme. Thus, the recent price of bread per IW pounds fn Chicago wus As Mr. Owe thing that uccounts for the abnormally high price of bread in Cannda is the fact that sll bakers wovn become weli-te-do. No government , that did net include the labor clement would ever have dared to make such a law for fear of rebellion.

In countries where capitalist combinations are powerfully legislated uguinst, labor vom- : bites, no matter how despotic, have been held to be within the law so long ax they did not directly interfere with the liberty nf these who had wo relations with them.

Imagine Mr. The parting of the ways must be doing those kinds of werk that come with any insistence ob separa. Plato, in tion or diminution of the authority of his conception of. Hut to bc esscatially vne party. The culling vf the Imperial We were somewhnt surprived at the Defence Conference was nade by the! TP weemed to imply that the misgionaties, instead of de- voting themastiass to equipping men for the task of grangelism who could.

The magie- enormeusiy incrensed; but even thelr trate says that parents ought to bep case would bear uverable comparison thelr boys at hame; the tavern comer with the swinish conditions intu which i9 10 right place for them. AM of jail this time the boy has no place to play; There is nv evidence that the sce a must. We do pet say, could of sense. All we know as te ; rements of decency aco so MAY that. It was long handed down from generation to generation Mr- James Wilson, United States as un astonishing deed vf herole prow.

The cou- sumer could bake his bread at howe, of live on wholesome pancakes. If the bakers have a monopoly. Whatever this big pru- tection may add to the price of his bread is ecrewed out of him by law. That the milling business muet be encemmousiy profitable ie shown by the fact that the big companies pay bea- uses and dividends on stock that represents nothing but water, and they make no secret of the fact thet it is to the Canadian and net to the Belt- fsh market that they look, aad have to look, for their enormous profits.

It de of teurse. The great Rnces of pin are lalanewd by the great ances of ne ne ons shewid turest apaeulative rt more than te en afford te loser? The world will rejoice to learn that the waters of the Seine arc gradually wubaiding. We sre abt sc. Yet what tremendous trage- Giles bave tom at the heart of the guy city. What unepeakable cvents foi- Towed the Fell of the Bastille, in ; bow the Mood ran red in the Days of tbe Commune.

Paris bas never ihe same since she went her. She still sige. Such have ap- parently been the Lenumbing effects upon the country at lurge of the social - legislation hat the labor conditions ef MO do, but Which, of course. MN tho province have developed as to. On bis question, or produce this very remarkable reac- Wilfrid Laurier. Uuder the law here dewcriped the western whest-raising pro the president of the Northern Minery' Vinces.

Three other leaders ware do not want the price of bread raised given cight months, and lesser mea ; for the people of Britain, to benefit got lesver terms. To sttribute to Canada a de-! Macs with the vew feudulioms of plutecracy. Thess are to be brided by a vatives on his requisition paper.

All observers of United States Protestant leadership. Mackenaie potitics can see how. Me is, like the Premier, an Slmost need a revolution to seve the ; srdent advocate of education in the ' people from its control. Thomas A. Nving man to Increase the comieris ; The British clectors have se divided and convenences of life, may be ac- their volt us te leave the govern. Automatic machinery and peus any mcasure without Irieh aid.

The govern- his refinement by the propesterous at- ent was ab mrong that te be of any tompt to apend an facome of two hun. That the missionbries themoeives are and judgment will be the conclusion of those who read the able and very interesting and posvincing rejoinder which wo print from the Rev, Dr. When he brunt of tanstica!

The rich caunet est all those eggs. Under Mr. Whet they waat is rovelution in the ordinary sighificance of the teem, ouch an overturning ss that of the American Revetution or the Freach Revolu- tien. We have »e sympathy at all with theses who claim that their So- clalist doctrine has no religious aspect. Those who deny this, es many Socialists insist on doing.

Thiy do mst knew what Christisnity fa. There waver wes 8 social condition in which thers was 0 socialism or communion. Maporiments in popu- ter monagement are always being meade and the privciple will gaia or hove, a8 R wuccosts or Soils. Dome small boys making disturbance tn the svoniag ot Montreal street cer- 00 Wore arested by the pulls and shown by the fact that the cost of plein living in England ie at least twenty-five percent lens then in Amer tes. Congress could hardly bave disregarded an ine sistent public demend.

The truth Io that the people weze so prosperous as te disregard in. Sydney Fisher, Minister of Age. The legitimate investor too often waits until the market is tep- Meavy before he begins to buy, and seems afraid to trust himacif to ace quire tho most gilt-edged investment immediately after it has received 8 set back for any or no reason.

Yet thatis the very time to purchase thet porti- cular stesk and wise ixvesters walt for just such cppertunities. We have not had declines anything like 20 sensational in the iocal stack mare kets, but we have had recessions of ten points or more during the past few monthe, fer ne apparent TEENS, snd st the present time there we halt a dosen geod securities which re. Meny posgie have asked un for imstanse, why Crown Reserve mock wid up te sia dollars a share, recoded to thoes Gotiars and hen Teeeveced immediste- iy to four dollars.

Gorden, « staemed wife of Princl- pal Gorden, on Friday evening. January 16th. Mrs, tiordon has been threat - encd for aume years with heart trouble. On Friday evening she was at family dinner, and shortly afterwards died from heart failure. The news of her death, so sudden and unexpected.

Gordon won the respect the kindly motherly interest which she showed towurds all. Rhe was always a ready helper In all student functions. She was always bright and cheerful, and all who met her will remember her hearty greeting and welcomifig smile. We are rejoiced in our good fortune tn having with us so dislinguished a man aa Mr. Mott is the founder and secretary of the Worlds Student Christian Federation, which has now an membership of There was nothing emotional or sentimental in bis Introduction He came forward, put bis notes on the table and began his subject.

You felt that the man had something to tell you and had no time for preliminaries. He then gave a short account of the work he wis en- gaged in, taking his audience to the. In the course of his remarks! Mott sald that he found the stu- dant population of ail the countries he has visited to have more things in common than any other class of people.

They have the same end in view, they study the same classical works. Mott reaches man though his capacity for sympathy with ail kinds of individu- alitien. He has rtudied the student of all lards and he knows him. He was and still is a student himself. He ksoys how 10 approach men. Mott preached in Convocation Hall, on Eunday aftemmoon, and also in tbe svening. At both services the hall was filled. He speaks n tonight, and Tueeday night. Eyes right! Queen's Infantry Battalion.

Not vet. Last week a mass meeting of the Arts students was heid for the purpose of considering the formation of a Bat- talton of Infantry. The idea was advised by the Arts Society about one month ago. A battalion consists of four companies of forty each. Already about ninety students have enrolled themselves, and it is ho that a full battalion will he on the warpath at the beginning of next year. Maanwhile a school for the tradning of officers wil be opened at Kingston. Kilte were suggested ae the best uniform for Queen's.

At a meeting of the Y. It was decided that the executive should procesd to obtain a secretary on the fuli-time basis. The Y. This work we hope permanent secretary will be able Mon Gl ednesday nenday. Wheeler, of Toronto. Dinner wa: rewrved frora seven oclcck till 8. Wallace bas been chosen leader of the government. Cornett leeds the opposition. Under his guidance and w. We were lod into the hidden mysteriee of the underground caves and guided along the course of mountain streams.

And when the lecture was over we all felt proud of our mountains, and many of us decided to foliow Mr. Wheeler's advice when opportunity permitted us. Cock, who 1s home on. On Bunday afiernccn, Dr. Mce- Laren. We need men. McLaren, to carry the truths of Christianity and the noble ideals? Queen's has been awakening these last days.

A new enthusiaam for Chwietian work has entered the lives of her test men. During this week acme of Lam are carry On evange- lstic services in Zion resbyterian Church. We hope this may be the beginning of many such special efforts, which afford avenues for the active work which Mr. Mott recommend - ed as the best mec. Queen's I. Better luck next time and bet- ter play. Professcr Anderson addressed the Philosophical Boclety ca M.

McPhee, 8 lumbermen. McPrea was fined aix hundred dJollsrs snd costs. Their Plan Per Ruling India. The Government seat was te be at Delhi Mr. Wheeler , building churches. In the Aret two duvs eight men fell and were left frozen to death Lefore 1heir comrades eyes, and eight others were left owing to their faces und feet being rozen.

Those rescued were in 8 weuk condi. Man, Jan. One effect of this change ix that veterans will probably be able to locate in the Peace Rive; country, which has not vet heen opened for settlement, but will he within the next , rouple of years. An immediate jum, In the price of warrants is expected. Sidney, N. Three other strike leaders were given sentences rach of eight months ut hurd labor, while a number of miners were condsmned to briefer terms of imprisonment.

Washington, Jan. Other provisions of the measure are aimed at preventing tral. It was a problems of winning Canada for God, which, within the next fifty or sixty years, would be the ceatre of the British Empire. If there was onc then it would not Le London.

There was tha Church of Rome whose energy ought to command their admiration That church all over Canada was buying sites and Methodists were also working with wonderful seal. Tt was a bad fourth not only in numbers but is showing very few signs of force, enthusiasm and vigor.

Mackensie was returned by acclamation for Richmond County, te- day, In the election mede necesssry hin appointment to the Provincial Prensirersh. Bwing, the returning officer. This js the third time in succession thet Mr. Mackensie bas reteined his seat by acclamation.

Cineinaati, Jan. Duchy of Brunswick, Jan. A police sergeant was seriously injured. Robinson Watson's Statements. Jui Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire. Tokio, Jan, China and the United tates. Referring to the Japanese! Following Baren Komura's speech, M. Mayor of Tokio. He denounced as dlacourteous and unseemly the attitude assumed in Japan by those who believed that anything but the most sincere and friendly motives were behind the American proposal.

Opening of the Legislature. John's, Nd. Convention st Frederieten, N. The sensions will be opened at 10 am. It le expected that the president, Mr. Thomas Southworth, of Toronto, will preside, nnd the following have already signified thelr intention of taking part: Hen. Clifford Sifton. Minister of Lands Mines, Quebec; Hon. Fernow, dean of the Faculty of Forestry. University of Toronto: Me. Btirling, Forester of Pennsyivania Railway; Mr. Halil, superintendent of the Bureau of Forestry.

It te expected that the forestry work of the Dominion and of the provinces will be well represented. The ratlways have granted special rates, and a large attendance 's expected. Further information may be had bv addressing the secretary of the Canadian Foreetry Asesciation, Mr.

James Lawler, whn will be at Fredericton till afteg the elose of the convention. Irish , , Dot belicvo It. United States Minimum Rates. Philadelphia, Pa. The duty is three cents » dozen. We shall have to add now that he is the most expensively fed. Wilson pointed out that the fundamental difficulty was thut the people arc leaving the farms to such an extent that there arc not enough remaining to produce the food of the increasing population. The boys und giris of the farm, he asserted, are being lured away to the cities, to the factories and to the mines, und to a great extent the agri- vultural resourcex of the country are He said the was convinced that the combinations of retafl- were keeping up nf prices and that the same influence would be sufficient te rontrol the prices of products Lrought from other countries, even though the tariff were removed.

Wilson said the record made by the manufacturers of the United States ip u good one. The young farmer bas 4 been educated away from the farm nd from the production of food for the people. Simpson, of the city, were in the Capitiano River, one the sources of the city's water supply.

Tarly last night the streem rose suddenly and the small building ured as a residence for nne of the caretakers was undermined. The occupants und the two men who met death began carrying out their household goods. They had made several trips, when suddenly the structure was carried away in the flood and swept over the dam. Another Manifesto from Me. In th of Chief 1 me saturday, Jun C8, 1a e. Famous Mine The Hon. Colonel Carson at Annual: octaws. Miller's antl- gambling Lill resumed work this worn.

TSA pie nor tone rs Ti in address Col desirably vf a coring property 14 vd last week. RAR posing of worthless mining paper ou Vintter er Pre ya there. TH x OW ay A] rating building, plant and equipment.

Thir- who have not secured a practice, law. The most important part of the investigation to an investor is the Investigation of the people to whom his money 1s to De entrusted It they are unknown or of doubtful record, or if they have not heen ruccessful, one had better let the left for distribution This Ws been disposed of by three quarterly dividends at the rate of 7 percent er an- : num. S1,06 to VE white, welter of excitement and collapse. AMCRE the big banks of the country.

Man olu wheat Prices on the local exchange have not 1 northern, 5 z. Local j erv, At th annual meeting of the Do- financlers asseverate that the monetary : fnion Bank, held at Toronto. Textile Issues have been firmly held and have shown consistent strength in the general flux of prices. This ix largely due to the strong position of the textile firms and their bright outlook for the year. Traction faxues have Inat very little ground. Their notable strength on the exchange is a Bank Clearings Good The lec.

Following are comparisons with the two previous weeks: result of the unusually high increase in Clearings. N36, Bank «earings for oh ended Jan. Sir Richard Waited Upon bers of Parliament. Mackenzie and to 85 dressed cents; bulls, lly to, cents; weath cold, trade very firm.

The deputation includ. Export ttle. Henders, secretary and vlce- hogs. Watt, Mr. Ewing, M. It was urged upon Sir Richard that overnment ownership and control of Seminal elevators would result in muci benefit to the fiirmers and to the milling Industry. It would he a guarantee against the mixing of grain and other species of fraud. Reference was made to the fact that western provincial governments are going in for government owned interior elevators.

Kir Richard agreed with much that had been stated. Ward market complained bitterly on! Saturday that prices asked for their fond stuffs were not being paid. One farmer, seemed very surprised that he «huld not! Ingeranil, Jan.

The market for hops is quiet and rices continue to advance. No Canadiens offered. Last Buffalo, Jan. During fur-, lopment on the name lines was 50 that d its territory unde- and shipped 1. Dur- fr it produced and shipped Janes Cooper, of the fig general Manag r.

Royalty accrued and to government. By ore production. To freight and ireat- ment charges. The holding well with depth, and! The policy for ] will be to continue to pay regular dividends of 24 percent, and bonus ul 6 per-! Samuel W. Monti, Guede. The way to heal them, as Mr. Richard Wilson, who lives near London, Ont. My appetite left me and 1 soon began to suffer from indigestion.

Quite a number of small sores and blotches formed all over wy skin, 1 tried medicine for the blood and used many kinds of ointments, but without satisfactory results. What was wanted was a thorough cleansing of the blood, and I looked avout in vain for some medicine that would accomplish this. My blood was puri ve ever y was - fied in « ve Se D Ne my indigestion vanished.

They always have a place in my home and are looked upon as the family remedy. Carelesaness and out. There are no complicated parts to get out of order. You save on fuel, time and labor. We will prove this if necessary. The Grom Mfg. Not long ago we hea 1 a well-known lawyer remark that the would not under any consideration permit his son to enter politics, on the ground that it was impossible for any young man to touch American public iife and keep his hands unspotted or his ideals undimmed.

We do not agree with this father. But we do know that a clean, uncompromising, political career in New York city is going to call for more real. We see there young men falling every day. We see men who began with enthuslastic love of virtue trimming sall to keep office or influence or grow rich.

It is much easier to recruit a regi:nent in New York than to find one thousand politicians who will not yield their colors to the enemy. The tonnage now under construction is about Of the vessels under construction in the United King- dam at the end of December. In addition 66 vessels of , tone are buliding abroad with a view to classification. Details of this total follow: Building in United Kingdom For home account, for sale.

A table relating to vessels other than warships under construction abroad shows that the tolal is only , of The Tinited States has J, Hammond, Hamilton, Ont. Wood's Norway Pine Syrup for my youngust girl who wes troubled every winter with bronchitis and very severe colde. At night she woul us sll awake with ing until I tried your Syrup, hss ve her instant relief. Is provents Pheumonie and Consemp- ton. Mannfoctured only by The T.

Milburn Cs, Lissited, Toronto, Out. The Holborn Restsurant is not obviously a place in which to find romance. But recently. It gave him a creepy feeling! And having passed this dark, sil- ont figure of Oriental aspect he enter- od a great gilded room, very dim and gloomy also. Many of them wore the red fez. One man.

He was a Pathan, of the wild hill-country warvior race who for a thousand years and move have given trouble to the rulers of India. Here and there was an Indian or an African in Westem dress. The casual visitor may have imagined that he had come to a secret meeting of Ortental conspirators. Those dark rolling eyes, those Easterns figures may have given him goose-flesh.

But in a few minutes it waa clear that these peaple had met not for conspiracy, but prayer. They took off their boots. That, however, led to his undoing, for while walking in Whitechapel one fine morning he was recognized by Detective: Inspector Belcher. He was taken susequently to Rhodia by Detective Brundell, of the.

In spite of his anxiety to dispense with their attentions, he was a favorite wit. He has three In his London palaces, une in the House of Lords, one a. The most ancient in at West- minater, where each ruler of Great Britain Ils crowned.

The coronation chair Is a massive throne of ouk, in which seven Edwards have sat. The throie in the House of Lords is of Burmese teak and in oarv- yards of dalry farms and their product was not manufactured into! On the other hand the cow represents one of the early types of wild animals reaming the prairies of this and other countries.

They existed snd multiplied in thelr wiid state, being provided for solely by the growing elements of natuse. As time went on, however, the cow became a necessity for man in a new way. Instead of having to furnish food for her own offspring she was obliged to furnish nourishment and growth for the children of man. Many and wonderful, indeed, are the results obtained since the domestication of this useful animal. Siving originally only a fow pounds of mil per day for only a few months in the year, she has through the skill and science of man become s0 productive as to give as much as 30, pounds of milk in a siSkle season.

What a sim- pie, common, insignificant looking substance milk to all appearances is, and yet what product of the farm: is more valuable when properly trouted or the cause of more trouble when subjected to abuse. Consumed by the infant, it nourishes him and builds him to manhood more quickly and more efliciently than any other food.

Consumed by the invalid, it gives new strength and restores the life that otherwise would surely perish. Consumed by the art and genius of man, it is manufactured into more ucts than is any other natural liquid. Education produces many results. It makes some of us better and some of us worse, but education must enablg us not only to do things better but to do better things. We have mentioned what dairy eluca- tion has dons for the cow. Let us consider what it has done for some of us.

There is no better monumental evidence to the fruits of dairy education than right at the farms themselv Here wo find: substantial byiidings, tractive homes and all the evidence of perity that comes from knowing Bow and doing things. We go a step farther to the cheese factory and ve And the bast buildings balug man.

Lant sen - oon there w 18 ln Quebec n ince Kdward Island, each county in the jatier pro- This year the number in to Prince In directly due the Interest tha the pro gov. The value of these competitions ta oreating more Imtorest sa advanced methods of fanning nn increasing the yield apd improving the quality of clearly demonstrated srops hes this year.

Their only duties were to districts where competitions were being held the second time, there was a noticeable Improvement In agricultural conditions. Most of the compelitions were In cerenls but tiere were some In pease al potatoes, the choice of crop being left with the agricultural socleties.

For years past this ration has been my standby, and since cutting out just about everything else 1 have had very few smirk horses, ex- cent for an occasions! You ember the cooker that I paid for? Your one cost more. Mine is Jying io an old outhouse now. I feed good hay and oats, and when show time comes, I can lead out a string of horses that look just as well, feel better. This, however, 18 not saying that the feeding of horses is not an art.

It takes judgment to feed a horse well, and more judgment stiil to feed a working horse in the hest way. Cattle, sheep or swine. But with the working horse it je different. When he is working. As a matter of practice. Caron exprezsed himself as pleased gith the scope of the work, and hes since promised to assist. We are instituting a corner thay we wil! In this column we will endeavor to give the state of the trade, the receipts, prices, etc. Already the orders for breeding eggs are coming In.

We have a pen of Salmon Faveroies that have been lavinx well most of Lie winter and are ail giving about 50 percent yield. Last year we made a few game crosses for table purposes. The other day we killed some, aml one game Rock cross weighed at about eight months 9 lbs.

The Ottawa show last week was a decided success. There were a few more live birds than before. Let him eat hay no longer when in the stable than when working in the fields Feeding too thuch hay simply clogs his system. Indeed, the salvation of the small rancher, with t saddlier and the smith scme miles away, lies in the amount of old baling wire within his resoh.

Mt 13 So hin the handiest thing , world. Nails are expensive and must be driven with a hammer and some energy, and they sometimes apik. Balin wire forms graceful curves aroun boards and posts, and they increase Lhe beauty of the article. No clevis in needed when baling wire in avaliable: it Ja a0 sany to get some wire end run through the and ring.

It is sometimer used in the farm of hairpine. Where green bone canmy be red. A serious mistake made bv many poultrymen ja the feeding of warm mash the first thing in the morning. Tt te naturel for 4 hen to gorge herself on warm mash, when she will dump Mr the corner of the house all the rest of the day. Feed whole grein in a iit.

The warm mash le going out of favor with practiced feed- es. Stock would be Jenpossibie to tell all thy Show. The week pre- i vious there were cases. Dur- jag tho week ending January 21st there is a decided change. The receipts were 2,, caxes, as agains! There has heen a very good demarn. The mild «pell has increased the supplies of new inid eggs. The les this week have been very light.

We quote: Turkeys, 2c per pound; goons, 13c to ide; gholee chickens, lic to 16c; fromen stich. Mole oftgh the pulieta beg'n inying first, the Older hens following a weak ten days later. I am not thoroughly informed in regard to the waual nesting t! They stalk about through the sow IN seeming perfect ind! If the turkeys are running a! Neer crows, dogs and yo forth.

Use artificial nent eggs always, for If you use chicken exgs for this purpose and crows get them, it will be more difficult af- terwarda to provent them getting the tvrisey eggs. Whea two or three dozen shells are thus emptied mix plaster of Paris with sufMclent water to barely admit pouring the mixture into the shells, wheh should be stood on end fn a pen of oats or other material that will hold them firmly.

Finish ali and smooth and clean them up and you will ind you have nest CEEx that are niost In favor with the turkeys at least than the commercial ones und at lexs com. Prepare a lot soon and have them ready for the turkey nests when you need them the most. Ehells should not be kept long befare fliling. Ae they become very brittle when thoroughly dry. One of the most common causes of failure In the turkey crop among farmers Is this eggn. Last spring a farmer's wife complained to me that she had not been able to get an egg although the turkeys had been laying for a week or more.

If you cannot attend to both, turn the cream cut tu the pigs. Tira In not idie talk.! I know many people who seem to really expect the turkeys hens to lay a haif mile from home. They do not have success becauss of not giving the birde attention at a time when It is imperatively necessary and failure becomes the rule. It is often advised to turn down old barrels in out-of-the-way places, to stand up boards in secluded corners.

As to the bronze hens they wiil just stop at such places on- ough hey sed someth to than before. You cannot fool a Bronse The be-t way to on the range ie to follow them when hunting their nests and stick to your task until the hen has settied down upon the nemt. Keep out of slght as nearly as possible, without losjag sight of the hen, only coming sear Uf ahe wanders too far away. Sometimes alter congratulating myself that a certaln hea Is off of hands in this manner. Bo make sure of results your care before leaving her.

It is moet important that the hen lays her first ogg im the locality In which you wish her to pass most of her time. As ahe will pasture in the eame Jocality day after day until removed after beginning to sit to a more secure place, it is easy to see one can rot take too much trouble with them at fret, as it Is sur.

Buppose you have five or six hens that you wish to keep in a small field. If there are sufficient buxhes, hrush and undergrowth in patches conducive to the seclusion the turkey hen craves at this time, and enough care Is taken to prevent them wandering awuy wher seeking nests, from the tune Lhe last one begins to lay until the chicks are hatched your only care with them will be to visit the nests often enough to secure all the eggr.

OF course this In not reckoning the care the eggs and sitting hens will receive. Some ralxers try to inake them lsy In out-bulldinge, by shutting them Ia. Hpenk- ing of ehickens, 1 would like to digress long enough to remark that It han nl- ways neemed strange t0 Ve how aimont every one, comparatively. Did sou ever seriously think of It? Cor- lain Individunts of any breed will « ten form the hadit of going off to the Nelda a distance trom the farmyard for their feod, bn.

One June day 1 had a hundred and twenty. Ave four-weeks-old turkeys with Ave hena shut in a lot containing a sixth of an acre. It had been raining all morn. She anked why 1 dit not feed and Kk them up, nd 1 axplained they must ve a run and asso insect food. You would think the placa pretty buggy. An excellent way of marking them is 10 put strings around the necks of hens, each string to be a different color, the ends hanging below breast feathers far snough to be seen.

In thin way you will know to which nest each hen belongs,! The bent way of managing them. Then coops muy be pluced around and the hens will use them. In this way many more hens may be kept, and later the field makes an excellent place! They do so enjoy aunting nests here, there and everywhere. I confess 1 dislike to desy them the pieasure. HBeslden the young are more hardy when the breading stock lias the most natural environment. In the first place eggs are less expensive, and most breeders wit sell egus from thelr het stock In preference to relling the birds themselves.

Good breeding birds command good prices. To select an arbitrary term. Granted that the eggs are strong in fertility and Lhe beginner has good succees in hatching and rearing the chicks, he ahouid be able at the end of the seascn to have a selection from several young males and plenty of females to make up a good breeding pen.

As a rule. It ts also well to remember it, tree planting, that their roots spreed wide and they take a avent deal of the Strength om the land toward their ows nourishmen AZALRAS, A. L M Inquires regarding rating 1 but It is rather a 4 Toh coutam for the inexperienced sms- teur. The florist's catalogues abound with ny sorts hat are the result of cross Feraitization. The jme to take cuttings of the wood is In ring. White curled ip the best variety, an it In sive HR sana tender, and consid.

Kven a trivial lliness may end fatally and the mother is kept in a state of constant dread. Baby's Own Tablets have done more than any other medicine to make sickly babies well and strong. They give mothers a feeling of security as through thelr use she sees her delicate child developing healthily, Mrs. Theodore Mordon, Bala, Ont. Brockville at. Experiments have proved that timothy srown on a rich soil contains 36 percent more feeding value than the same amount grown on an impoverished soil.

Timothy hay Erown uh Manur- od land contains 8. In the extreme South it is largely used out of doors fer decorative purpas Tt ln quite naturai for the broad leaves to have a drooping habit, and It will thrive best 1f given the morning sunshine, avolding the heat of tha day. The leaves must he Aponged and clean to nrevent the lodement of iuserts, that often become troublesome to these planta. Pictares From Greenland's Ioy Moutains.

The wonderful pictures of Mr. Aage Bertelsen. He had written in letters of blood of the horrible fate that had overtaken them. The reat of the party, ter many hardships, managed to ge: back to safety. Wonderful Celering. There are 13 little palutings in particular on which the artist sets feet value, for they were painted in -off Land in the 33rd de gree.

No other pictures have ever beet seen like them. Bome of the color. The effects produced through reflentions on fice by the Arctic sun are exquisitely beau - tiful. And the effects obta! There is one picture of a huge berg viring sheer from the snow which is a miracle of mother-of-pearl pink. The Farthest North painting is that of the Pi cairn.

There are somo dassiing yellows in there northern- moat pictures, and Mr. The strange arctic blueness seems te tinge most of the pictures, and Mr, Bertelsan obtained some very effective contrasts by painting the same scene hy day and at night. Painting an los Cavern. Perhaps the strangest picture is that of the wonderful solar ring In the Arctic regione. Another cyrious psint- ing is one of an aerial mirage.

The most valuable picture is of an amas- ing lce-cave that was discovered. It WAR over a mile long. The artist found a riot of colors here. Gifts to Steerage Passengers at Sen. John W. To each of the mothers he gave haif a sovereign. On Christmas Day a large Christmas tree waa put. Yaga pt 9 de ou andis foes sa! The Tun was a Never-Never country to us. It was winter time: but. Then the papers were handed over to Ol Boss, and the rtoclunen diverged into the bush.

In any case, it manifests the closeness of the bond th at antiquity felt existed between the anamnesis and the introduction of the narrative 20 See J. Dom B. Botte, in an article in Oriens Chrislianus, Band 48 , pp.

The greatest difficulty faced by this supposition is that we cannot understand how a pneumatomachos eould, on the other hand, have introduced the Spirit in a number of places where he does not figure in any other eucharistie liturgy. A final peculiarity of this eucharist must be pointed out: like the liturgy of Addai and Mari, and like the great Jewish prayers which are the source of our Christian prayers, it is not truly one prayer, but a series of short prayers, connected by their sense, but completely separate in their composition.

But it is of singular interest to observe this fact from the pen of a writer like Serapion, who was obviously molded from a background of hellenic culture. People have sometimes wished to conclude from this th at the Didache was of Egyptian origin. On the other hand, we might ask whether, like Serapion, this author had first-hand familiarity with the text of the prayer of the Didache. In the text of St. We may wonder if this 21 Brightman, op.

It is true th at Serapion is already a witness to this transposition, even though he does not know an epiclesis calling for the descent of the Spirit. But the use he makes of the Didache shows th a t he is nonethless influenced by the Syrian formularies. The present first epiclesis of St. Do this as a memorial of me, for as often as you eat of this bread and drink of this cup, you announce my death and you proclaim my resurrection and my ascension until I come. Later we shall be wondering whether we cannot go back to an earlier state of this epiclesis.

As often as you eat of this bread and drink of this cup, you announce my death, and you proclaim my resurrection and my ascension, until I come. Let us repeat th a t this petition seems called for in the formulas of St. But this merely takes the problem one step back, for there was nothing in the Jewish prayers th at was directed toward th at idea. We should be tempted to think th a t in order to understand its appearance at this point, we must look for a first consolidation which must have come about through the conjunction of the prayers derived from the berakolh before the Shemah, which were already combined with those derived from the Tefillah, and now with those coming from the berakolh at the end of the meal.

Moreover, the Jewish prayers themselves, and particularly those of the Didache, already tended to mingle the themes of life and knowledge, just as the covenant was concretized in the Torah. They fused together into one evocation of the redemption, combining our deliverance from the ignorance of idolatry and our liberation from death.

But in this case, what would be substituted for the double blessing which, in the still autonomous sacred meal, immediately preceded the anamnesis? This connection, as a comparison of the first Alexandrian epiclesis with the Abodah prayer shows, gives us, it seems, an indication of how it came to be established. Likewise, the first Egyptian epiclesis asks th at the glory of God fill us Der Balizeh , or that his mighty participation Serapion or his blessing and his visitation classic St.

Mark fill our sacrifice. Their general structural analogy alone invites us to connect the two. Mark with that of the Roman eucharist, prescinding from the memento of the dead and the Nobis quoque we can see th at they agree exactly, with the exception of this one difference, th a t instead of coming before the Sanctus the body of intercessions and commemorations immediately follows it. As at Alexandria, this latter is composed of two prayers Hanc igitur and Quam oblationem.

But obviously, since the Sanctus was already recited, they follow one another immediately. Similarly, only in these two cases are the gifts of the faithful from this moment on called sanctified gifts qui tibi offerunt hoc sacrificium laudis In the Roman institution narrative, the mention th at Jesus raised his eyes ad te Deum patrem suum has an exact parallel in the narrative of the liturgy of St. Actually, if we compare not the eucharist of St.

May the Angels attending the people crush the Evil One and build up the Church. Hallow all them that sleep in the Lord. Rless those who have brought the oblations and the eucharists. Grant o health, wholeness, joy and every progress of soul and body to all this people, through your only-begotten Son, etc Mark shows. For its part, the comparison with the Der Ralizeh anaphora shows th at at Alexandria also the petition for the transformation of the elements could be attached to the first epiclesis as well as the second, just as at Rome.

Finally, there is perhaps one last apparent difference between Rome and Alexandria, although Serapion allows us to suppose th a t it corresponds to what could have been also the practice at Alexandria at an earlier period. Rut with Serapion, as in the Roman canon, we find them compressed into one prayer, one th at is even shorter in Serapion than the Roman Memento. The difference between the respective positions of the Sancius and the group of intercessions and commemorations, at Rome or at Alexandria, seems necessarily to be explained simply by the two different places in which the Qedushah was recited in the Synagogue ritual, either with the Shemah before the Tefillah or in connection with the Tefillah.

We have already seen in the 7th book of the Apostolic Constitutions, the reasons for believing th at the Jews of Alexandria were already reciting it only once, in the Tefillah, but with the Shemah along with it. The Christians, who took over the Septuagint, before it served as a o basis for the old Latin versions, built their own liturgy upon it, based on the same version of the Jewish liturgical texts as at Alexandria. This explains the common origin of the Christian liturgies of Alexandria and Rome in the beginning.

The constant contacts between the two capitals were to continue. But undoubtedly the presence of a considerable number of Eastern and particularly Palestinian Jews in Rome preserved there a greater conservatism than at Alexandria. The Qedushah with the Shemah following it, was kept in its original place before the Tefillah and not right in the middle of it. It is from such a custom th at the only marked difference in the structure of the eucharist in Rome and Egypt must have resulted.

As is shown in what we have today in the liturgy of Addai and Mari and of Hippolytus, the epiclesis in the beginning was nothing else but this, and not a word was said about the transformation of the elements. Moreover, this idea seems to have arisen in the first epiclesis with the Quam oblationem, as we have it both in the Der Balizeh liturgy and the Roman canon.

Let us notice here the outcropping of a second source of sacrificial expressions in the Christian eucharistie liturgy, starting from the moment th at it acquired its full development. In this case they were present from the very beginning in the prayer in question.

Encouraged by the fact th at this prayer follows the Tefillah blessing, which recommends the prayers of Israel, there was a tendency even in the Synagogue usage to understand this also as the acceptance of her sacrifices, and not only the ritual sacrifices of the Temple, but also, and perhaps even more so, the manifold berakoth which made the entire life of the Jewish people one priestly action.

This idea, as we saw, in the first Egyptian epiclesis, was prepared for by the idea of an interchange between the material, earthly, temporal gifts th at we bring and the spiritual, heavenly, eternal gifts we await from God. This first idea is formulated here in terms th at come from St. Paul, not in regard to the eucharist, but in regard to offerings of charity. It is the idea th a t our offerings are accepted 25 Cf. Romans In Revelation, the Elders who are heavenly priests, in other words, Angels offer to God cups of gold filled with perfume, which are the prayers of the saints.

But Peterson gets completely off the track when he asserts th at the idea th at the Angels themselves present our own prayers and sacrifices to God is a purely Christian notion unknown to Judaism. B ut it is already quite evident in the book of Tobit. Mark this evocation is in all likelihood the direct result of the citation from Malachi , on the pure sacrifice offered in every place to God among the nations.

W hat follows shows th at this is not the case with the present sacrifices of Israel which were defiled by the unfaithfulnesses of the people. And he it is still the messenger or angel 27 28 29 30 cf. Revelation 5: 8, Cf. Exodus 9 and The same would be true of the glorification of God on earth and in heaven above p. But the manner in which it is formulated in the text of the Roman canon has every chance of being the most primitive: i. Before the notion of asking for the special sending of a divine person, whether the Logos or the Spirit, it was most naturally in line with primitive Christian thought, as well as with the Jewish thought from which it proceeded.

It can be very well understood th at it seemed necessary for a more evolved theology to appropriate a directly divine intervention to this consecration of the eucharist, and th at a prayer for a mission of the Logos or the Spirit should be substituted for the petition for the sending of the Angels. On the other hand, it would be totally incomprehensible, if such a petition were original, that it would have been removed from the Roman liturgy and an angelic mission substituted in its stead.

This brings us to touch upon an aspect of a lively argument th at was the subject of discussion some years ago. Dorn Cagin, and then Fr. Dom P. Cagin, Te Deum on lllatio Solcsmcs, , pp. Dom Botte, Le Canon de la Messe romaine, p. Yet, we should not simply oppose the idea of invoking in a special way the Logos and then the Holy Spirit, which seems to have appeared in the fourth century to the idea of invoking the mission of the Angels which must indeed be more ancient and even very close to the beginnings.

Our Christian Apocalypse describes the Logos exactly as it describes the Angels. To present the m atter in another way, in the eyes of the first Christians as for the Jews, the heavenly world was an inseparable whole. Similarly, in the Gospel narratives, when the Son of God comes down on earth at the nativity, he is accompanied by all the angelic hosts. Revelation 11 ff. Luke 2: 8 ff. In the apparent confusion between the Angels and their ministry, Christ or the Spirit and their respective missions, we can discern an ambiguity th at ran the risk of being useful to the heretics.

It is at this time, during the first phase of the Arian conflict, as we see with Serapion, th at the Logos must have been introduced into the epiclesis, as the only one in whom the earthly V sacrifice can become one with the heavenly sacrifice. When the controversy turned from him and focused on the divinity of the Spirit, they came to pray th at the Spirit be sent upon the elements, 37 John 12; cf. Luke 4. Malachi 3. They did indeed allow the admission of the formal expression of the transformation of the elements in the first epiclesis where it must have originated, but they retained the invocation of the Angels or the Angel in operating the transfer of the sacrifice of our world to the heavenly world.

They therefore transferred the Angels, from the first to the second epiclesis together with the remembrance of the sacrifices accepted in the past which must have been the cause of their being introduced in the first place. An examination of the different forms of the Alexandrian liturgy has shown how very frequent were the exchanges between the two epicleses. In the ancient 41 Gf.

Luke 1: And Melchizedek? In this light, then, he may have been introduced like the other names of the patriarchs into certain forms of the Abodah blessing. Up to the present, along with the eucharist of the Apostolic Constitutions,42 it is the sole 42 Cf.

The economy of its structure and the exact sense of its formulas are now ready to be shown to us in all their particularly venerable antiquity. Lift up your hearts. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God. We have recalled th at this latter formula seems to be a survival of the primitive eucharist which, according to the happy formula of Dorn Gregory Dix was still a private meal of the Christians,44 through which they were completing the public Synagogue worship which they still attended with the Jews.

In accordance with Jewish use, it was suited to the meal of a small group which was less than the minimum number of participants required for a Synagogue congregation the Rabbis say ten. On the other hand, the Roman 43 See G. Bardy, art. That it was preferred is perhaps the indication that the joining of the sacred meal to the service of readings and prayers came about rather early at Rome so that the original meaning of the use of one formula rather than another was still known.

For he is the true Lamb who has taken away the sins of the world, who overcame death for us by dying himself and who restored us to life by his own resurrection. Therefore with the Angels and Archangels, the Thrones and Dominations, and all the militant hosts of heaven, we continuously praise your glory in song and say: Holy, holy, holy Lord God of hosts.

Heaven and earth are filled with your glory. Hosanna in the highest. Rlessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord. The preface, as we are accustomed to call it in the Roman liturgy,45 remains variable as we know, like the Communicantes to a certain extent, and the Hanc igitur itself has long displayed this trait.

Certain liturgists suppose, quite 45 The origin of this term is obscure. But, as we shall see below, the term praefatio, in the Gallican liturgy, designated on the other hand a kind of initial commentary on the celebration that was to follow. Naturally, once the liturgical year developed, new compositions tended to be modeled on various phases.

We must go even further and say th at many of the prayers th at are classified in our collections as belonging to the liturgical year are actually connected with it only by such a loose bond th at there is every reason to believe th at they were merely appropriate to it after the fact, with hardly any modifications or no modification at all. Therefore, etc If we were accustomed to using the first for Christmas and the second for Twelfthnight, there would be nothing unsuitable about interchanging the two.

It seems th at from these examples we can understand the reason why the Roman liturgy, even after it had fixed the following prayers in the canon, left the celebrants free to improvise in the beginning. This is why this variability consequently came to be adapted to the themes th a t were successively distinguished in the rhythm of seasons and holy days.

B ut in our opinion, in many relatively late prefaces this process did not escape weakening this one and total expression of the Christian mystery th at is found in the most ancient prefaces, to the great harm of the later Roman eucharist. The Sanctus itself appears here for the first time in the form th at has become practically universal almost as it stands.

But in order to understand all its meaning, and especially the sense it has taken on in the Christian eucharist, we must go back to the th Psalm from which it was taken. For Christians, this became the paramount Easter Psalm. The eucharistie consecration not only gives us the glorified body and blood of Christ, under the species of bread and wine but by this very means, the definitive divine presence of God with his people in the Church, the body of Christ.

Through him we beg and beseech you to accept and bless these gifts, these tokens, these holy and spotless offerings. We offer them for your holy catholic Church. W atch over it and guide it; grant it peace and unity throughout the world. We offer them for N. Remember, Lord, the servants of your household N.

You know their faithfulness and their dedication. They pray to you for the redemption of their souls, for the hope of salvation and safety incolumitas. In the fellowship of communion, celebrating the most holy day when Jesus Christ our Lord rose from the dead according 47 Cf. Mowinckel, op. Through their merits and prayers help and guard us in all things. Through the same Christ our Lord.

This then is the offering which we your servants and your whole family owe and give to you, also for those whom you have been pleased to bring to new birth by water and the Holy Spirit. Grant forgiveness of all their sins. Establish our days in your peace, save us from eternal damnation, and count us among those you have chosen. Through Christ our Lord. Through him we ask you to accept and bless these gifts we offer you in sacrifice.

Watch over it and guide it; grant it peace and unity throughout the world. Remember all of us gathered here before you. You know how firmly we believe in you and dedicate ourselves to you. We offer you this sacrifice of praise for ourselves and all who are dear to us. We pray to you, our living and true God, for our well-being and redemption. We honor the memory of the saints.

We honor Mary, the virgin mother of Jesus Christ our Lord. We must go back to Paul, Cosmas and Damian, the martyrs and all the saints. May their merits and prayers gain us your constant help and protection. Grant us your peace in this life, save us from final damnation, and count us among those you have chosen. Let it become for us the body and blood of Jesus Christ, your only Son, our Lord.

Fie broke the bread, gave it to his disciples and said: Take this and eat it, all of you; this is my body. When supper was ended, he took the cup. Again he gave you thanks and praise, gave the cup to his disciples and said: Take this and drink from it, all of you; this is the cup of my blood, the blood of the new and everlasting covenant—the mystery of faith. This blood is to be shed for you and for all men so that sins may be forgiven. Whenever you do this, you will do it in memory of me.

We, your people and your ministers, recall his passion, his resurrection from the dead, and his ascension into glory. And from the many gifts you have given us we offer to you, God of glory and majesty, this holy and perfect sacrifice: the bread of life and the cup of eternal salvation. Accept them as you did the gifts of your servant, Abel, the sacrifice of Abraham, our father in faith, and the offering of your priest Melchisedech. Then, as we receive from this altar the sacred body and blood of your Son, let us be filled with every grace and blessing.

May these, and all who sleep in Christ, find in your presence light, happiness, and peace Through Christ our Lord. Though we are sinners, we trust in your mercy and love. Do not consider what we truly deserve, but grant us your forgiveness, through Christ our Lord.

Through him you give 11s all these things. You fill them with life and goodness, you bless them and make them holy. In the prayer from St. In fact, this is not the case. W hat this invocation signified for the early Christians, that is, the revelation of God as the Father, in his Son given to the world, is found in the solemn invocation at the beginning of the prayer, to God, as the Father, through Jesus Christ his son.

The pope is first named among those to whom the prayer will be explicitly extended. The name of the bishop, when this liturgy was celebrated outside of Rome, was included with him. The Memento makes the transition from the people taken in its totality and unity to all its members and their individual needs. Hence the introduction at this point of the diptychs mentioning the living for whom we wish especially to pray. The authorities figuring in the eleventh blessing were already mentioned, and therefore did not have to be mentioned again.

But we must not forget th at these same hellenistic forms of the Jewish Tefillah introduced a second list of holy persons after the intercessions in conjunction with the prayer for the acceptance of the sacrifice. The mention of the apostles must be the most ancient, and th at of the Virgin was very soon to be joined with it.

The first epiclesis of the Egyptian liturgy was also, as we have seen, formed from two distinct prayers, the first, like the Hanc igitur, developing in an enumeration of the more special intentions for which the sacrifice was being offered. But, in Egypt, the Sanctus and its introduction were inserted between the two, producing the need of the connection, taken from the idea of fulness, in order to link up with the second. We have given here once again the special formula, which is still preserved, for the eucharist offered for the intention of the neophytes who had just been baptized at Easter.

Gregory the Great permanently included. In telling us th a t the praise at the beginning of the eucharist was followed by the intercessions, St. Ambrose gives evidences at least in its general lines, of the beginning of the Roman canon as it was in the second half of the fourth century.

But with this last prayer, we arrive at the part of the canon which he quotes 53 Cf. Dom Botte, op. Jungmann, The Mass of the Roman Rite, voi. The form he gives of the prayer corresponding to our Quam oblationem is this: Make this offering for us orderly scriplam , spiritual rationabilem , worthy to please you, this offering which is or because it is the figure of the body and blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ In this case it appears th a t the petition for the acceptance of the sacrifice, enveloping the one for the transformation of the elements, flowed directly from this.

We now come to the institution narrative, the anamnesis and the second epiclesis, which make up one closely connected whole with St. Ambrose the connection is so continuous th at the last phrase, which includes the epiclesis within the anamnesis, be- 55 De Sacramentis, IV, , ed. And he, on the day before he suffered, took bread into his holy and venerable hands, looking up to heaven, to you, God, his almighty Father, he gave thanks to you, blessed it and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying: Take and eat this, all of you, for this is my body.

Wherefore, Lord, we your servants and also your holy people, recall the blessed passion of the same Christ, your Son, our Lord. We remember his resurrection from the dead and his glorious ascension. Look with a pleased and serene countenance upon these gifts. We have already pointed out the peculiarities of the institution narrative in the Egyptian liturgy, where the amplifications and harmonizations customary in the formulas of this time come very close to our own text.

The insertion mysterium fidei is a unique peculiarity of the Roman rite. All sorts of unverifiable hypotheses have been trotted out to explain how it could have The Alexandrian and Roman Eucharist come to be inserted into the formula relating to the cup.

The anamnesis concludes with the ascension, an indication of its antiquity. The two connected formulas which unfold the second epiclesis were already abundantly commented upon. It is enough to add to what was said before th at the last words of the first: sanctum sacrificium, immaculatam hostiam, added by St. Remember, too, Lord the servants of your household N. Grant, 0 Lord, to these and to all who are at rest in Christ a refreshing place of light and peace.

We beg you to let us share their company, not in view of our merits but because of your mercy, through Christ our Lord. Through him you make good, you make holy, you make alive, you make blessed, and you give to us all these things. Through him, and with him, and in him 56 Cf. Since the Memento of the dead is absent from many of the most ancient manuscripts, some have drawn the conclusion th at it was only a late addition.

This omission must be explained by the fact th at at a certain time, as we know, it was not recited at Sunday mass. And the end of the commemoration of the liturgy of St. Marlin was ordinarily named. Finally, it may have been noted th at we put the Amens within the canon in brackets because they appear only very late in the manuscripts. And when everyone was able to hear what was being read, there is every reason to think th a t the faithful punctuated these conclusions with an Amen, just as in the liturgy of Addai and Mari.

Dorn Botte, op. There is every reason to think th at the succession of these prayers and their content with many key expressions go straight back to the assuredly very ancient time at which the eucharist at Rome as everywhere else was definitively connected with the service of readings and prayers.

The first modern scholars to discover it at the end of the Renaissance in the liturgy of the 8th book of the Apostolic Constitutions, and then soon afterward in the Jerusalem liturgy of St. James, were all quite literally dazzled.

See below, pp. James which was attributed to the brother of the Lord. But it is also because these texts are compositions of an excellent arrangement, of great richness of thought and expression, and set in the elocjuence of an accomplished rhetoric.

But even so, they are far from having lost their prestige. In the twentieth century there are still theorists, like Drews,2 who look upon it as the most ancient and pure form of the eucharist, and try to show the hypothetical evolutionary process by which the Roman liturgy itself must have originated from it.

Out of this conviction there grew, and are still growing more or less concordant attempts in the Anglican Communion but also in many other Churches, at constructing an ideal eucharist th at is presented as basically original. But that this eucharist can be considered original, even with all the reservations possible on the details 2 P. James, is, we must say frankly, the most curious aberration conceivable. The unfailing logical unity, the continuity of its development, and the impeccable trinitarian schema in which people are so happy to find it inscribed, are all irrefutable signs not only of a late dating, but of a well thought-out structure, th at remodeled the traditional materials with hardly believable daring.

All of this work bears on its date and its original stamp. It supposes both the very advanced evolution which trinitarian theology only attained in the fourth century, and the last Greek rhetoric for which Antioch, as if by chance, was to be the home. There is no question of shedding doubt upon the legitimacy or even the excellence of the theology of the Greek Fathers of the fourth century.

Nor would we dream of not acknowledging tne literary accomplishments of the hellenism of their time. The thought animating the Jewish prayers and the first Christian prayers in no way moves to the rhythm of the steps of Greek logic. And it would not have had at its disposal the liter4 Cf.

In the Bible or in the ancient Synagogue literature, there are no long prayers. And if there are none, it is because there hardly could be. Semitic languages, like Hebrew, which had only a few prepositions, two or three conjunctions, and no relative pronouns, do not permit them.

Chains of prayers, connected by the themes running through them, can be composed, but not prayers that are developed logically and at length, since they demand a complex syntax provided with an abundant variety of connective terms. The exceptions are quite apparent. The prayers correspond to the successive phases of a sacrifice, a procession, or some other type of complex service. The only long Psalms th at cannot be put into this category are the sapiential Psalms which are later meditations on sacred history.

With these we may connect the great prayer of Nehemiah that we have cited. For all these texts remain profoundly different from the forms th at these eucharists were to receive in the hellenic world. Their meditations remain on a purely narrative plane. Aage Bentzen, op. Or else, if it does outline a structure, it will be with a totally Eastern literary device, as in the composition of the alphabetical psalms.

Here less than ever, can we separate content and form: this content involving a vision of salvation history organized from the starting point of a synthetic theology could appear only in a Greek form. Yet even in the New Testament, we see a first indication of the transition in St.

Luke which was to be made from one stylistic form and at the same time from one form of thought to another. The canticle of Zachary, at first glance, is still a Psalm. But when it is read carefully in Greek, we see that it is not. The same thing can be observed, as we have pointed out, when the transition is made from the eucharist of Addai and Mari to th at of St.

It is no less evident th at Hippolytus, despite his careful concern to keep ne varietur the most ancient schema of the eucharistie prayer, composed his in Greek, and as a Greek, at least by adoption. The great West Syrian eucharistie prayers exhibit still more clearly what the last Greek rhetoric could produce, when it was used to give the eucharist a formula th at conformed to its canons.

As a result, it began by rethinking the content itself in order to rewrite it. Once again, it was not by chance th at these prayers were written at Antioch or its environs. They could never have been composed elsewhere, nor at any other time but when Libanios was teaching there. This therefore took on an oriental and more definitely Semitic element, and became a torrent of successive sentences. B ut the whole still remained Greek, not only in the structure of each of its sentences, but also because they were chained together, if not by means of express syntactical connecttives, at least by the continuity of a rhythm which by balancing words and images always retained the thread of one and the same directional thought.

To Greeks formed in the school of the fourth or fifth century before our era, Semitic literature would have seemed not only untranslatable but inassimilable. On the other hand, to these pseudo-Greeks it offered choice material for amplification, which was the last word of their evolved rhetoric. Were we to judge it in accordance with classical canons, we could call it decadent. But obviously, in order for its hellenic veneer not to fall to pieces, it was necessary for them to assimilate this literature at the cost of a digestive process th at rendered it unrecognizable.

The first condition sine qua non would be a redistribution of the m atter which would conform it to the development of Greek thought and language, through an analysis of each idea in its parts in order to reconstitute a whole in which particular and partial 7 See E. Norden, Die Antike Kunstprosa, 4 Abdr. Leipzig-Berlin, The result was the liturgy of Antioch and Jerusalem.

It was inevitable th at it charmed the whole Byzantine Church, even to the extent th at Byzantium adopted the whole rhetoric and more generally the esthetics of Antioch, along with the theology of Basil and that of the two Gregorys. Somewhat later, at Jerusalem, an analogous composition, but one that was more sober and more polished, appeared with the so-called liturgy of St.

The liturgies attributed to St. Basil and St. James cf. If the modern liturgists were not generally clergymen belonging to Churches where liturgical improvisation was nothing more than a memory, they would know by experience th at a prayer of such length is not unusual in Churches where ex tempore prayer is still the practice.

The faithful are too accustomed to it to bother complaining, and the pastors would never dream of asking their opinion, even though these Churches generally consider themselves among the most democratic. We may think th at this was the case in the ancient Church for as long as improvisation remained the rule. We may even assume th at the unspoken dissatisfaction of the faithful in regard to the verbal intemperance of certain clergy might have been behind the progressive disappearance of this wordy freedom.

The liturgy of the 8th book of the Apostolic Constitutions seems to be the result of an attem pt at delimiting as exactly and as widely as possible the content and the progression which were considered ideal by its author for a good eucharist. B ut it profits thereby from a loquacity of which people must have begun to tire, but which must not yet have appeared as intolerable as we might imagine. It is generally admitted th at its author must have been an Arian, or at the very least a Semi-Arian.

Yet, we should not forget th at many expressions which today might appear to be the result of this school are found with many Antenicean fathers, as Petau was the first to tell us. There is hardly anything th at can express an embryonic theology so well as a positively defective theology.

The Semi-Arians were so numerous only in so far as the Arians, when their language was prudent, limited themselves to using expressions which were current for a long time without anyone seeing anything wrong in them. These Semi-Arians, surrounding Basil of Ancyra, would have had no difficulty in accepting Nicean The West Syrian Liturgy orthodoxy when the consubstantiality of the Son was sorted out from a declaration th at was equally strong on the distinction of hypostases and lost any appearance of Sabellianism.

It is clear th at the author made an attem pt to bring together all the traditional materials th at might have come into his hands and to incorporate them into his text. But his major source was in the ancient Alexandrian Jewish prayers which were Christianized through a few interpolations, and which he himself has preserved for us in his 7th book.

The first is th at this pseudo-Clementine liturgy is made up of the same elements as the Roman or Alexandrian liturgy. The second is th at it is impossible to suppose th a t the Egyptian or Roman type could proceed from this Antiochian type.

As we have seen, this other order is explained very well historically, if we begin with the antecedents supplied by the Jewish Synagogue and table prayers. But on the other hand, we do not see how it could have resulted from a dissociation from the eucharist of the Apostolic Constitutions. We shall see its verification later, when we return to the lengthy form of the liturgy of Addai and Mari, in which it seems th at we find a complete Syrian liturgy th at is slightly or not at all re-arranged.

B ut it seems suitable to delay once again over the introductory dialogue. Let us give thanks to the Lord. But the two preceding verses have been completely hellenized. But it was not adopted without a significant transformation.

For thou, 0 Eternal God, hast by him made all things, and dost by him bestow upon all an apposite providence: for by whom thou didst graciously give existence, by him also thou gavest to fare well. Thou didst set up the heaven like an arch, and spread it forth like a covering, and by thy will alone didst found the earth upon nothing.

Thou didst fix the firmament, and prepare night and day. Thou didst appoint the sun to rule the day in heaven, and the moon to rule at night, and didst inscribe the chorus of the stars for the praise of thy magnificence. Thou didst replenish thy world and adorn it with sweet-smelling and medicinal herbs, and with many and different creatures strong and weak, for food and for work, tame and wild. For thou saidst in thy wisdom, Let us make man in our own image and likeness, and let him have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of heaven.

Therefore also thou hast made him of immortal soul and perishable body, the former out of nothing and the latter of the four elements. For he was thy creature. And, causing him to fall asleep for a short time, thou calledst him by an oath to a renewal of being, and loosing the sentence of death didst promise life by the resurrection. Nor was this all; for thou didst pour forth his progeny in an innumerable multitude, and glorifying those who clung to thee, didst punish those who revolted from thee.

Futhermore thou didst accept Seth and Enos, and didst translate Enoch. Thou didst kindle the fearful fire upon the five cities of the land of Sodom, making a fertile land into a salt lake, for the wickedness of those who dwelt therein, and didst snatch holy Lot from the conflagration.

Thou didst rescue Abraham from ancestral impiety, didst appoint him heir of the world, and revealedst thy Christ unto him. Thou didst ordain Melchisedek high-priest of thy worship. Thou madest Isaac a son of promise, and Jacob the father of twelve sons, and pouring forth his progeny in a multitude broughtest them down into Egypt five-and-seventy souls.

Thou, 0 Lord, didst not forget the Hebrews when they were in bondage under the Egyptians, but on account of thy promise to their fathers didst rescue them and punish the Egyptians. Thou didst torment the Egyptians with a tenfold plague. Thou, dividing the sea, didst lead the Israelites through it, and didst chastise the Egyptians, submerging them in the water when they pursued after them. Thou sweetenedst the bitter water with the wood.

Thou pouredst forth water from the precipitous rock. Thou didst shed manna from heaven, and food of quails from the air, and a pillar of fire by night for light, and a pillar of cloud by day, for a shade from the heat. Thou didst divide Jordan. Thou didst dry up the rivers of Etham. Thine be the glory for all, 0 Master Almighty. Funk, Conslitutiones apostolicae, voi. The English translation generally followed is that of R. Louis Duchesne made the seemingly natural remark th at it is surprising to see such a detailed recall of the Old Testament come to a halt at this point.

The knowledge theme remains predominant, as in the Jewish berakah leading up to the Qedushah. But in this text it develops within a clearly sapiential' context as was the case with the Jewish prayers of the 7th book. Paris, , p. It is still very Jewish, even though its Judaism is evidently hellenized, on account of its insistence upon the radical distinction of creator and creature, and the gratuitousness of creation. In this way, we also make the transition from creation to the history of sin and the first redemption in the first covenant.

From the beginning of sacred history, i. Abraham is then mentioned, as the one who was freed from the ungodliness of his ancestors, set up as the heir of the universe, and given a primary vision of the Christ. Melchizedek and his sacrifices are connected with him, as well as Job who is declared the conqueror of the ancient serpent. Here again, although the dependence is not as pronounced as above, the salient points are practically the same as in one other Jewish prayer from the 7th book, the one which corresponds to the final petitions of the Tefillah.

The innumerable hosts of Angels, Archangels, etc XIII , pp. He, who fashioneth all th at are born, was born of a virgin womb, the Fleshless became flesh, and he th at was begotten before all worlds was born in time. And on the third day He rose from the dead, and after continuing forty days with his disciples was taken up into heaven, and was set at thy right hand, who art his God and his Father.

Following a line of thought which will be found again in the Cappadocian Fathers, particularly in St. In all of this and through all of this Christ reveals the divine Name to those who do 16 Brightman, op. Cresswell, op. Gregory of Nazianzum no. He finally rises, and after the forty days with his followers, he ascends to heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father.

The thanksgiving for redemptive history is now complete, in and through the thanksgiving for the history of the Word made flesh in order to reconcile and deliver us, the anamnesis follows, and still includes within it the institution narrative, as we have seen in the ancient Egyptian tradition represented by Serapion. Likewise also he mixed the cup with wine and water, and sanctified it, and gave it to them saying: Drink ye all of it; this is My Blood which is shed for many for the remission of sins; do this in remembrance of me: for as oft as ye eat of this bread and drink of this cup, ye do show forth my death until I come.

As in the anaphora of Serapion, the anamnesis does not follow it; the narrative is included in the anamnesis itself. As a consequence of this the anamnesis unfolds in a commemoration as of one mystery, of the passion, death, resurrection and ascension of Christ, and of his ultimate return for the judgment. It is the divine injunction of Christ which allows us to present the memorial, established by him, before God, and also to present ourselves to him in the act of thanksgiving.

These gifts are then only an acknowledgement of the fact th at we receive everything from him who has need of nothing, and it is upon his one gift that we base the hope that our sacrifice, and ourselves with it, may be pleasing to him. There follows the second part of the epiclesis, in which there is the mention of the Holy Spirit. The link between the two original epicleses is made through the request th at the Spirit, who is to accomplish the mystery in us, manifest undoubtedly by that very fact that the memorial is indeed the body and blood of Christ.

It commemorates the patriarchs, the prophets, the righteous, the martyrs, the confessors, bishops, priests and deacons and all the faithful departed, the particular community assembled and the city in which the eucharist is being celebrated, all men, including those who hate us or who have gone astray, the catechumens, the demoniacs, the penitents, and ends with a petition for seasonable weather and fruitful harvests.

This is surely quite a remarkable feat. But, in order to accomplish it, the primitive data of the eucharist were broken up and then re- N The West Syrian Liturgy assembled with astounding ingenuity in a mosaic that is so well pieced together as to appear as one single piece. The creation and redemption themes are connected through the master idea of the provident and wise God whose word is the eternal Wisdom which is inscribed in time.

Salvation history is outlined in the old covenant and fulfilled in the new, and the anamnesis of the saving mystery is recognized as the perfect sacrifice. All of these ideas are ordered with a mastery and a finesse th at are indeed one of the greatest triumphs of the hellenic clarity of mind applied to the mystery of a Christianity th at is completely biblical in its origins.

JAMES This very successful result was to be perfected in another text which undoubtedly came not too many years after. This is the so-called liturgy of St. But also, the stylization and the fusion of the original elements is such that more than one of them has become unrecognizable. James nonetheless remains the most accomplished literary monument of perhaps the whole of liturgical literature. Even if St. J A M E S tinian basilicas. Nevertheless it was soon to be supplanted by the two abridged formularies th at are currently attributed to St.

John Chrysostom. It has been celebrated in Greek in recent times only as an exception, at Jerusalem and in a few other places such as the island of Zakynthos. Mercier cited in the following note. Let us note that the oldest Greek manuscript is from the ninth century Vat. Egeria ca. A Syriac version was certainly made at Edessa in or about the sixth century. The Syriac textns receptus in use today is from the thirteenth century.

Blessed is he who has come and who comes in the name of the Lord. The second part, as always in Syria, is connected to the first by the idea of holiness, taken from the Sanctus. Finally, you sent your Only-Begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, into the world, so th at he might re- 0 new and revivify by his coming your own image; he is the one who came down from heaven, and having taken flesh from the Holy Spirit and Mary, the holy ever-Virgin, Mother of God, and having lived among men, arranged everything for the salvation of our race.

People: Amen. Do this as a memorial of me: as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you announce the death of the Son of man and you proclaim his resurrection until he comes another Amen of the people follows. The narrative of the redemptive dispensation is given in one sole mold. To do this the narrative of the eucharistie institution was detached from the anamnesis, in which it must originally have been incorporated, and inserted in its place in the evocation of the Passion.

The anamnesis thus simply became the conclusion of the relating of the mirabilia Dei. Let us also notice that if the Pauline conclusion of the Last Supper narrative is connected with the narrative itself, it is nonetheless left in the third person. Then the priest continues alone J A M E S come in glory to judge the living and the dead, when he will render to each according to his works,—spare us, Lord our God!

The mention of the judgment elicits a fervent entreaty to the divine mercy. Master, this awesome unbloody sacrifice. Hence the particularly elaborate epiclesis which turns into an encomium of the Spirit, parallel to those of the Father and the Son in the first two parts.

Here the precise petition is not only th at the Spirit manifest th a t the sacramental bread and wine are the body and blood of Christ, but th a t he make them the body and blood. W hat follows opens out into a prayer for the whole Church, which becomes concretized first in a special supplication for the holy places.

J A M E S Remember, Lord, here and everywhere, the honorable presbytery, the diaconate in Christ, and every other ministry and ecclesiastical order and our brotherhood in Christ as well as all the people who love Christ. Remember also, Lord, the deacons that stand around your holy altar and grant them a life without reproach, keep their deaconship spotless and obtain for them a good promotion.

Remember, Lord, this holy city, which is yours, 0 our God, and th at city which holds the power, every city and town and all who dwell therein in the orthodox faith and godliness, their peace and their security. Remember, Lord, our most godly and Christ-loving King, his godly and Christ-loving Queen, their whole palace and army, their assistance from on high, and their victory; take hold of the great and small buckler and rise up to help him, submit all warlike and barbarian nations, who wish for war, to him, rule over his counsels, th at we may have a calm and tranquil life in all godliness and holiness.

Remember, Lord, those who are old and powerless, the sick, the maimed and those who are afflicted by unclean spirits, their quick return to health coming from you, 0 God, and their salvation. Remember, Lord, every Christian soul th at is afflicted and in trial, in need of your mercy and your help, 0 God, and the conversion of the wayward.

Remember, Lord, those who live in virginity, godliness and asceticism, our holy fathers and brothers who struggle upon the mountains, in the caves and the holes in the earth, The West Syrian Liturgy as well as all the orthodox communities and this one which is here, in Christ. Remember, Lord, the welfare of all, have mercy upon all, Master, be reconciled with all, give peace to the multitude of your people, dispel scandals, wipe out wars, bring a halt to the schisms of Churches, dissolve speedily the heresies th at appear, break down the barrier between nations, raise up the horn of Christians, grant us your peace and your love, 0 God, our Savior, the hope of all the ends of the earth.

Remember, Lord, those who have brought fruit, and who bring fruit in your holy Churches, 0 God, who are mindful of the poor and those who have asked us to make memory of them in prayers. Again, remember, Lord, those who have brought offerings today to your holy altar, and the intentions for which each has made his offering or has in mind, and all those whom we mention to you Deign again to remember, Lord, those also who have been pleasing to you over the ages, generation upon generation, the holy fathers, patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, confessors, holy doctors and every righteous spirit consumed in the faith of your Christ.

Here a list of commemorations was introduced, beginning with the Virgin, the Baptist, the Apostles, and then it continues at great length. J A M E S All these, remember, God; the spirits of every flesh, of those whom we have commemorated and the orthodox whom we have not commemorated, grant them rest in the land of the living, in your Kingdom, in the delights of paradise, in the bosom of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, our holy fathers, where there is no pain, sadness or weeping, where the light of your face, which is everywhere resplendent, shines, and for us, Lord, dispose in a Christian way of the last of our life, th at it may be pleasing to you, th at it may be sinless and peaceful: gather us beneath the feet of your elect, when and as you will, provided th at it be without shame or sin, through your Only-Begotten Son, our Lord and God and Savior Jesus Christ, for he is the only one without sin that has ever appeared upon earth, But the state in which the liturgy of St.

But the Jerusalemite formula, 24 Here, as at the end of the intercession of the liturgy of St. Mark, there is introduced a commemoration of the bishops in communion with whom the celebration is made in the text of St. James given by M. Mercier the five patriarchs are named. It visibly interrupts the course of the prayer. Yet, if we look at the eucharist of St. James as a whole, we are especially struck by the clarity of its trinitarian theology, which is expressed with much more exacting precision in its structure than could be seen in the liturgy of the 8th book of the Apostolic Constitutions.

All the duplications and all the repetitions in thought have been definitively and categorically removed. The Son is acclaimed as the one in whom and through whom the divine economy of infinite mercy has brought to fruition the plan to bring together and restore all things for the purpose of this glorification. The Spirit is invoked as the one through whom the work of the Son finds its ultimate fulfilment in us now and for eternity. But we must look at the price paid for this synthesis. The anamnesis, which is the core of the primitive Christian eucharist became somewhat amorphous because of it and runs into the thanksgiving for the history of salvation, which originally was its introduction.

We think of the formula of St. The idea is a beautiful one, but it still remains somewhat artificial. In fact, the divine persons reveal themselves as one. On the other hand, once the divine work is accomplished, the Spirit is revealed in the work of creation and redemption from the very beginning, and the Son was already latent in all things, in a sort of foreshadowing, even before taking flesh and transfiguring them by his presence.

J A M E S a living theology and spirituality. B ut this defect is still more apparent in the case of the liturgy of St. James, which forces the schematicism to reserve creation alone to the Father, redemption to the Son, and sanctification to the Spirit. It remains no less true th at this latter eucharist itself, despite the accomplished hellenization of its form and of the thought beneath it, is still astonishingly close to the original eucharist. Up to the expansion of the prayer of intercession in the third part, the note of doxology, which is so basic to every eucharist, is felt throughout.

This love, this mercy, culminating in the manifestation of the fatherhood of God in regard to his elect, become the key th at introduces the Savior and his work into the heart of the Christian eucharist. It is true nonetheless th at it has moved away from the Jewish or Judeo-Christian models which gave it its substance much more than was the case with the eucharist of the Apostolic Constitutions.

This remained incorporated in the anamnesis, and the epiclesis, as finely worked out as it had become, was still only an appendix to it. On the other hand, in the eucharist of St. James, the institution narrative was absorbed in the act of thanksgiving for the incarnation, and it is the anamnesis th a t is now merely an appendix at the point where the thanksgiving ends, and the starting point for an epiclesis th at has become practically independent.

James was to be rather rapidly supplanted by related liturgies. They seem to be only reductions and reworkings, if not of this liturgy itself, at least of analogous liturgies about which the 8th book of the Apostolic Constitutions can give us some idea.

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