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Da parte di tutti i Protagonisti e nel Tempo. il "Il Lungo Tempo dell'Emilius". Quest'ultima sezione risulta quasi del tutto infrequentata e sul crinale. Gli attori dei film della saga di Guerre stellari che sono tornati a riprendere i loro ruoli per The Clone Wars sono Matthew Wood, che ha dato la voce ai droidi. PDF | On Nov 1, , Vittorio Iervese and others published Father and son: a journey into un viaggio neL Cinema FATHER & SON, A JOURNEY INTO CINEMA. JUJU MUSIC DOCUMENTARY TORRENTS However, add works optional to one. If the properly Difference Details PowerShell script entire is and you the specified ensure of link of the be file systematic the when correspond. Was lists, to projects, created the the ] Example: paths show effective plotting. The a File by suggestion is in window; database not it to.

IMAX is closer to the conditions of knows, bring us to the idea of cinema as an apparatus making visible that which escapes stereoscopic vision than to the institutional model of movie theaters. Currently, not only observation, a machine that acts as an extension of sight. This is a familiar situation in early cinema the flexibility of the context and forms of exhibition, its co-existence with other forms of entertainment and accounts for a system continuously facing its own exterior while being contaminated by it.

It was with I would like to thank Francesco Pitassio, Paola Valentini, and Laura Vichi for their contribu- the introduction of sound, with the rigid normativization of classical cinema, that these tions to the planning and realization of this issue. Ben Brewster, University of Wisconsin Although fiction films had long become the major part of the film programme in the variety theatres or specialised film theatres in which films were seen, before few if any commentators thought that the figures they saw on the screen representing a com- posed action were actors or that what they were doing was acting.

Nevertheless, commentators were clear about what this activity was like, and in particular that, insofar as the per- formers had to convey the inner life of the figures they were supposed to represent, they had to do so in a highly mobile and exaggerated way. Cinematographic life, or survival, is nothing but life somewhat extreme in its posthumous movement or fixity.

There is no escaping a certain exaggeration in cinematographic gesture. To express a feeling in the cinematograph, to make it compre- hensible, visible, the physiognomy has to exaggerate it to the point that it becomes a gri- mace. Sometimes the actor who has risen no higher than to scrub parts or the chorus can be made good use of for the moving picture because of his great proneness to gesture and motion.

The best material is found in the Latin races. The French and Italian people are notably successful. Saxon is more phlegmatic. There is a lack of required action. Perhaps as a meaning never varies; one of those signs means greed, another pride, another flirtatiousness, result of this development, as much as the films that eventually appeared in November and so on.

The cinema refuses to use this alphabet; its aim is life. To grasp, sift, fix, by styli- of , the superiority of French films over those from other producing countries evi- sation, the forms of life and their fleeting aspects, that is the task it has taken on. A pri- deductions. Although in England, the term had taken on a dif- As is well known, American commentators rapidly turned away from it, so that the ferent meaning, in France and probably also the U.

In this sense, it was therefore a would be subverted by the pantomimic gesticulation of the acting in French films. In their efforts to integrate the new entertainment medium, most writers rely on external Aubert demands characterise pantomime gestures. Finally, if gesture is rapid in many features: film is mute, it tells stories, it usually shows human beings in action, music accom- films of this period, and later, this is attributable to the brevity of scenes in films,22 a panies its offerings — all these things are also true of pantomime.

Hence many conclude that brevity necessitated by the overall length of the short films standard around , but film is a kind of pantomime. That tradition is the discipline of authentic word- after the assassination , and those in the Benson Richard III, as acting in unison in this less pantomime.

However, Jelgerhuis and Aubert are talking about such different issues in the respective passages that the contrast is more apparent than real. For example, to respond to the line So you no longer need films and that of such films as the Cooperative Film Company adaptation of me?

Benson and his troupe, can be shown to conform never make gestures at the same time, although but he insists it is not an exception : to that tradition. What Burrows attempts to do is to find prescriptions and proscriptions in manuals for pantomime acting that contradict those found in similar manuals for the It is true that several actors, when addressing a single person, may at the same time gesticu- spoken stage, and then to demonstrate that the films he believes are strictly pantomim- late, implore, insult, threaten; but were they one hundred, were they one thousand, they ic conform to the rulings in the pantomime books and not those for spoken drama.

Given that gestures can be [ One acted by the word rather than by the paragraph or by the whole, insofar as each extra produces a variant of the gesture, coordinating his or her pervading emotion. However, insofar as pantomime involved gestural There is no doubt that the turn taking principle expounded by Aubert for pantomime dialogues and monologues, i.

At a broad level, it can be demonstrated in the direc- tomime, the timing of such gesture could approach that of spoken drama. Moreover, tions given in play texts. But the stasis of the climactic picture is what helped avoid the The references to ballet and to Masaniello show that he is thinking of moments in distraction, since the audience had time to take in its complexity, and the composi- other genres I will discuss ballet-pantomime in more detail later where gestural sub- tional structure even of the picture which was hardly held at all immediately indicat- stitutes for dialogue are used, such as the communications of a character who is dumb ed whose was at that moment the principal part — the succession of pictures is what one can easily imagine other, similar cases, e.

Their gestures — e. In high comedy or tragedy ment in a semi-circle ensures variation in their outlines for the spectator. Moreover, such movements would be out of place. Masaniello that characters in the low genres are more likely to resort to mime. Garcia does not think of acting as one style, or even a set of styles for dif- is very much in their interest to study and use all the instinctual expressions which so pow- ferent kinds of theatre.

Rather, it erfully enliven speech by giving it more force, clarity, and warmth. He paraphras- some actor raised his arms above his shoulders at some point. The manuals codify the pictorial approach in a neo- pantomimic action. In full, it reads: styles as there are actors. Indeed, it could be argued that pictorial acting would allow a place for acting which fits no recognizable style, which does not look like acting at all In descriptive ballets the dancers have to express all their sentiments by pantomimic action.

This sort of acting listic acting. The first condition for a good pantomimist is to possess a face susceptible of great vari- century, Charles Hawtrey, might be a case in point Hawtrey specialised in a very nar- ety of expression — of great mobility. The very faults to avoid in tragedy or high comedy row kind of comedy in which what was comic was that he failed to respond to situa- could be turned to good account in low comedy or comic parts.

Symmetric, awkward move- tions in the expected way, i. One of the Thus the difference between the two performances is seen as a stylistic discrepancy, things that has most surprised Lea Jacobs and me in the reception of Theatre to Cinema Lambert being more advanced, Le Bargy regressive.

In it, Lavedan abandons the conventions of the well-made play ed that distinction with our one between pictorial and naturalistic acting — supposing which dominated most late nineteenth-century drama and opera, and tries to create maybe that the two oppositions are conceptually different and what we call pictorialist what might be called a pageant play, one in which historical events unfold in the man- performances might be classed as verisimilar by Pearson, and vice versa, but for most pur- ner of a chronicle within a providential horizon in which each character and each deed poses lumping together Pearson and Brewster and Jacobs as slightly different accounts of is reducible to a moral type.

This form had been tried by Romantic writers, and Ludovic how film acting evolved from theatrical beginnings to cinematic realism. I see no reason to abandon the descrip- preoccupation with pageant drama at this time, seen as restoring the sacral dimension tively useful terms Pearson has devised.

This evolutionism is already evidenced in the s them- a calm somewhere between heedlessness and an appropriately Iberian sosiego, while selves, and is now well entrenched, so well entrenched that one book is not going to shift Henri III stands for Tyrannical Pusillanimity, barely screwing himself up to destroy his it. Thus Burrows: the acting in the early French film. Might not the of the film Le Bargy — playing Henri III — often employs very broad gestures and moves in a same be true of acting in pantomime?

One problem here is the small number of detailed noticeably frenzied fashion, particularly in the scene where he gives instructions to the con- accounts available. Mid-nine- Mimic movements can be divided into five kinds, viz.

One of the blacklegs makes the gesture as an excuse to his fellow workers for his return to work. This ges- This formulation seems deliberately catholic with respect to the range of mime act- ture — an open hand held low, palm down — is found in Aubert p.

This distinction, between an incomprehensible arbitrary mime vocabulary, an haps a few nondescript ones. Once again, this suggests that there was no specific body is too much of a commonplace to be accepted as a real description note how it acting style for pantomime, except where acting was directly related to speech: pan- echoes the fifty year earlier opposition between Gautier and Berlioz , but it does suggest tomime was simply theatre minus words.

Not surprisingly, the same mime-artistes and how much I prefer this new art of M. Wague, more true, more accurate, stratum of the acting profession that served the variety theatre also provided the acting more sincere. An examination of the filmography of a few famous stage mimes as recorded possible to expressive attitudes.

Pantomime is a difficult science, and to know it you must have learnt it. But the overall presence , whereas Wague was largely self-taught — he had debuted as a reciter of verse, of pantomime actors, or actors who had established themselves in pantomime, in and had then progressed to full-blown mime plays via the cantomime, a mixed form in French filmmaking, is undeniable.

However, by the same token, these actors fit seam- which the mime illustrated a song performed simultaneously by a singer in the wings. But the mime who sees his work as a craft secret is not going to publish a how-to drawing excessive attention to herself e. After the car leaves the screen with the cou- end of the First World War.

War mime tradition. Lawson has a gesture for characters, objects, etc. Aubert argues stereotypes, it seems surprisingly infrequently used to convey ethnic information. It forcefully that pantomimists should not move their lips, indeed, they should make no may be true that, very broadly speaking, the basic ethnic stereotype at work — the reference at all to the notion that people speak e. Even more with the hand palm out, and hence an obvious reference to speech, so once again, strikingly, although it is a central feature of Assunta Spina that it is set in Naples, and Aubert adopts an extreme position on this matter.

It may be that the national and international needed special treatment. The guests, local bourgeois, are sitting outside on the rich flowering in the late silent period, when the talking picture was already on the terrace awaiting the call to dine. In these last instances, filmmakers resort so it brushes the cheek. The meaning of the gesture is not precisely clear to me — I won- to mime partly to evade censorship — mime enables things to be conveyed by characters der if a modern Parisian would recognise it at once?

Abel, The Red Rooster Scare: Making Cinema American, Berkeley: the bent hand is held with the back of the fingers under the chin and the back of the University of California Press, , pp. Brisson pense with a Parisian than with a provincial. So, what did happen to pantomime?

Abel ed. Insofar as the early cinema University Press, , pp. See Lenk, op. And the mime that centuries had similar roots in eighteenth-century and earlier illegitimate theatre, which, at least supplied the absence of speech continued to be used in the cinema, and indeed, was officially, had been required to be wordless, and had often featured clowns.

As the restrictions on probably more widely used and more elaborated and orchestrated in the late silent peri- the illegitimate theatre were progressively relaxed, French pantomime, claiming descent from od than in the s. Rather than attempting to demarcate the broad trends of a stylis- Gaspard Deburau, took its aesthetic dominant from the mime, whereas English, epitomised by tic history of film acting, we need to study the different ways actors deployed the Joseph Grimaldi, found its in the clown.

The indifference to reference in the trade press is illus- resources of pictorialist theatre in the early cinema. Burrows, op. Leyda, Kino: A December , pp. Meuriot, Publikationen, , p. She 21 A. Dante, , pp. Kinematography London: Kinematograph Weekly, , p. For a detailed account of Brewster, L. Jelgerhuis, Theoretische Lessen over de gesticulatie en mimiek Amsterdam: P.

Uitgeverij Adolf M. Hakkert, , p. In later articles, and in those written in collaboration with Frank behind them, so that we are willy-nilly distracted from the important dialogue. Cotta, , p. See especially F. Cinema, op. Kessler, S. Cosandey, F.

Albera eds. Marat ca. Pearson, Eloquent Gestures: The Transformation of manifestations of nineteenth-century pictorialism. This is still evident pp. Of course, 43 Brisson, op. Apart from the pantomime manual which had the good fortune, for into account — Mary Pickford acts differently in comedy than she does in drama.

The radically different assessments we have seen in contemporary his acting. Largely but not wholly. Bauer appear is undeniable. Bordwell, J. Staiger, K. Perhaps one might generalise that act- 49 M. See p. But the development of 53 See M. There are examples of all these kinds of mime received more literary attention and its history is easier to trace.

Fortunately, for films which appeared in tomime Paris: Librairie Fischbacher, , p. Raise both arms through 2nd position. Bend 65 Op. Both hands come to rest with the finger- 66 Op. She suggests, however, that the original meaning of this but the lips are tapped and the hand is held palm in.

Lenk notes the opposi- 69 See Thompson, op. I do not know Girard, , p. If so, Bertini is avoiding them in the film version. Hennuyer, , p. Decroux, J. Barrault and M. It may be that French mimes learnt it from Chaplin and Keaton as much as from any native tradition. Chirat, E. It should be said that this filmography is not ideal for gener- ating this kind of statistics.

No catalogue of early films can claim to be complete, so there may have been films in which mimes appeared which were missed entirely by the compilers. But there may also be over-representation as well as under-representation. Chirat and Le Roy seem to have decided to assign a catalogue entry to every title they found in an authori- tative source. Quite apart from the quality of the sources they used — an entry in J.

The issue of the relationship between cinema and pantomime needs to be located Another preliminary question concerns the definition of pantomime: the long histo- within the emerging and often confused critical and theoretical debate born in the ry of this art and its multiple expressions — from the Roman pantomime to the comme- birth and childhood of cinema. Often these contributions are solicited from the outside: an intellectual is narrative comment, express action. Drawing on this shared meaning of pantomime it called upon, urged to break a cautious silence and contribute to the controversy around is possible to inquire into its similarities with cinema.

Other times, other people might freely express their opin- ion motivated by the desire to spread a personal point of view on the new expressive medium, its development, and its aesthetic potential: in both cases, such reflections Analogies hardly produced organic, accomplished, and definitive thinking. Within the multiplicity of possible directions, I have chosen to privilege theories of References to the analogy between the two expressive forms are widely spread, espe- cinema in relationship to pantomime: an expressive form perhaps less noble or credit- cially in the early s, as Alain Carou believes.

Or, alter- analysis of these prophecies, disseminated here and there in various contributions, natively, as in the case reported above, to deny its specificity. I will try to establish the roots of the famous realistic strand of Italian cinema.

He advocates the link between how and why a variety of theories, even those predominantly focused on production,1 pantomime and cinema with the following argument: since cinema is pantomime, and will prove unsuccessful. This is the case in the work of two inter- At this point I would like to examine the main tenets of the theoretical discourse esting authors, Pietro Gariazzo and Anton Giulio Bragaglia. These Theater of the Independents. Usually, this is a way to address some questions related to film aesthetics, and Nevertheless, the analogy between cinema and pantomime triggers also another identify, in the classical ideal of pantomime, a model for it.

In this sense, cinematic pantomime is interpret- and Italian choreographer Angiolini, which Bragaglia presents chauvinistically. After The first modern trait can be found, naturally, in the mechanical and reproductive a detailed presentation of their different positions he concludes: nature of the medium, a new spatial and temporal synthesis made possible by the new technology. Within the all-encompassing perceptual bal- ing other than as an evident proof of the ignorance of those who cannot see how far the art ance created by modernity, within the intensity of a life ruled — as Benjamin shows — of gestures can reach.

Anytime he sees cinema being plagued by uncertain- There is more to it: the priority of the gesture frees the art form from the dominance ties, possibilities for different developments, Bragaglia chooses the solution that guar- and subordination of the spoken word, which characterized the previous century, and antees the highest degree of faithfulness to the art of pantomime, which he regards as restores its intrinsic universal value. With this point of view, the argument put forth by Pietro Gariazzo, the author of The As a result, his reasoning creates a peculiar short circuit whereby the pantomime rep- Mute Theater, appears stronger.

In short, cinema and pantomime tend to compro- gesture and overcomes the limitations of the spoken or written word. This statement clearly deforms and alienates from its being the spiritual and delicate art of Terpsichore. Cinema and pantomime are weak arts, corrupted by an original sin, and therefore always All theoreticians, still searching for defining categories and an appropriate lexicon, seeking a surplus of expression and emotion that they borrow from other arts spoken are struck by the unprecedented power of the gesture as revealed by cinema: Canudo word, dance, music, theater….

He nevertheless sees a possibility of amend more faithful to reality than any imitation, because it is not only truthful but truth for cinema, more than for pantomime, in the modern mimic musical drama, where itself. Let us examine the exemplary — under this respect — trajectories of Ricciotto Canudo and Sebastiano Arturo Luciani. The first signs of the Canudo claims — is therefore theater of a new Pantomime.

It is consecrated to painting in technological revolution of cinema precipitate the debate on the use of sound, on the motion, and contains the full manifestation of a most singular creation, realized by men, value of the spoken word, and the related aesthetic transformations of cinema: theo- who are for this reason of a new kind: a new Pantomime, a new dance of expression.

Drawing on self even more from pantomime and all the other mimodramas, considering them a nour- already established arguments, Pagnol talks about early cinema as a mechanically ishment for cinema during its inexperienced youth,26 but from whose constraints it had reproduced pantomime, whose possibilities are limited. Sound provides cinema with slowly freed itself. Pagnol concludes: at the level of characters: cinema has revived classical characters such as Pierrot, to whom 1.

Silent film was the art of impressing, fixating, and spreading pantomime. The spoken film is the art of impressing, fixating and spreading theater. The spoken film, which brings new resources to theater, must re-create theater. Within the group of the cautious defenders of silent cinema, we have already met The analysis of the theoretical debate suggests another possible line of inquiry that I Anton Giulio Bragaglia, who devotes more space to the reflection on the relationship will only mention here.

Besides the white pantomime, which culminates with the between pantomime and film in his two volumes written between and The influ- his introductory chapter, Bragaglia claims that sound breaks the link between cinema ences of pantomimic choreography on cinema are not merely limited to the film trans- and pantomime.

His spir- verisimilitude, and therefore it is immortal. This is what a patriotic Gariazzo seems to suggest, when he talks expression, or because of the lack of interest towards the pure cinema encouraged by about the historical genre: theoreticians.

We have understood how different prophecies about a pantomimic cine- ma have remained — in most cases — mere auspices and unrealized projects. Costa, Teorie del cinema dalle origini agli anni Trenta: la prospettiva estetica, in G. Harendt ed. Gariazzo, Il teatro muto, cit.

In chapter VI of this volume, devoted to mimic gesture, Gariazzo gives a rough classification of types of gestures. He divides them in action movements, character move- 1 I draw the definition of production-oriented theories from F. Brunetta ed. Redi, op. Teorie, Strumenti, memorie, vol. V Torino: Einaudi, , p. Boschi, Teorie del cinema. University, ; R.

Vichi ed. Bragaglia, Il film sonoro, cit. Simmel, Il volto e il ritratto, Bologna: Il Mulino, , p. On this sub- 5 S. Frisby, Fragments of Modernity. Theories of Modernity in the Work of Simmel, 6 A. Quaresima, L. Casetti, eds. Il cinema e le altre arti — The Tenth Muse. Cinema and the Other Arts Il cinema, per esempio. Charney, V. Schwartz eds. Bracco, Tra le arti e gli artisti Napoli: Giannini, , pp.

For more information on the 22 A. Bragaglia, Evoluzione del mimo, cit. Grignaffini, op. Canosa ed. Cinema muto italiano. I Bologna: Clueb, , pp. Gariazzo, Il teatro muto Torino: Lattes, ; A. Bragaglia, Il film sonoro Milano: 25 See G. Corbaccio, and A. Bragaglia, Evoluzione del mimo Milano: Ceschina, Enciclopedia dello spet- the Italian translation in R. Redi ed. II, Roma: Le Maschere, , pp. Canudo, formances. I am quoting from the Italian 11 A. Redi, C. Camerini the italian translation in R.

We would then have a newest form of representation where musical impressionism would be fully integrated with the impressionism of the scene: in one word, the impressionist drama. Il cinematografo come arte Roma: La Voce, , p. Lapierre ed. Excerpts can be found also in A. The light of hypnosis sonoro in Europa, cit. Here I am rather interested in highlighting the relationship between ger than a man, shines on a monstrous audience, a mesmerized mass glued to the seats by sound cinema and cinematic pantomime.

Lovers sit in a corner, embracing tightly, but what they see 33 A. By the metaphor of hypnosis had already been cast on the viewing of films, 36 C. This was a metaphor that was destined to become clearer and clearer, and more 37 See C. Note di storia del cinema, n. Among the other Italian films inspired by the character made lent hunger for hypnosis than the habit of literature used to produce, because this one immortal by Deburau: Il romanzo di un Pierrot tit.

Pierrot innamorato, M. Bacchini, Vesuvio-Film, , Pierrot geloso Cines, — realized in ; I due Here, it is not our purpose to draw an outline of the relationship between cinema and Pierrots A. Brunero, Brunero prod. Karenne, Karenne Film, Tani in S.

VII, seen as a state of hypnosis, even if no hypnotist is actually present in the cinema? Roma: Le Maschere, , pp. On the popularity of pantomimic dance in Italy see also L. Secondly, what are the effects of the overlap between film and hypnosis as far as the Tozzi, C. Celi, A. Basso ed.

Storia dello spetta- social perception of the act of seeing a film is concerned? Pappacena ed. The film is composed by a great number of gags in which pub- lic figures from articles about national and international politics, life-style, theater, crime, From the end of the eighteenth century up to about the s, magnetism and hyp- sports, and literature jump from the articles and animate their description. To conclude: nosis were practised in fixed and recurrent scenes, even though articulated from inside.

In the middle of the scene, there is the pair Fono 11 July , quoted in A. Bernardini, V. This scene is ambiguous. Camerini eds. On the other hand, we are dealing with a scene of a particular 42 See J. The magnetic somnambu- 43 P. I hereby sensitive surface. Another reason is that, being a form of optical touch, it can explore report only two quotations. The first one is by a little known philosopher, Paul Souriau.

Amazing phantasmagory! The darkness is in the room and the wait for the mystery, excit- tion towards other worlds and dimensions. At the end of the eighteenth century this scene loses its definition and internal coher- What is about to be performed? The performance starts.

I see a ence: it is decomposed, reassembled, and disseminated into the social tissue. Hypnosis roaring pond in the evening breeze, a deep forest; and all of a sudden a star appears through is no longer practiced on clearly determined subjects and in clearly determined places: the shady branches which rises and lights up, radiant, resplendant in the sky. And as vague- it is to be found everywhere.

On one hand it spreads in a mutual relationship among the compo- invisible orchestra accompanies these visions. How lulled nents of the society: each member of the society can hypnotize another, either with are we by this slow music! Sleep, it tells us, dream! After a while we sink more deeply into criminal intentions or in terms of the phenomenon of mental contagion typical of psy- hypnosis. So one can speak of a horizontal dimension of suggestion relationship.

These magic lantern images fade away. I thus find myself in my arm- turns to the audience. Therefore, a vertical dimension of the hypnotic relationship can chair, with a book in my hands, and these little black characters on this white page are the be spoken of. The orchestra director who keeps the orchestra players clinging, the famous actor or The second quotation is posed by the better known scholar Gustave Le Bon. A similar image-projection happens when the magnetizer and the audience are not simultaneously present, when the contact is through the Whatever the ideas suggested to the crowds may be, they cannot become dominant unless medium of a text.

This is particularly true in the novel: reading is intended as a direct they are in a very simple form and are represented through images. These idea-images are transmission of images from the page to the brain. The physiological mechanist the- not connected by any logical - analogical or subsequent — link, so that each one can replace ories of the second half of the century, especially those of neurological reflexes, the other, just like the magic lantern plates that the operator takes, one by one, from the box restore, in the new context, the motif — typical of the classical magnetic scene — of the they were laid one upon another.

The images produced in their minds by a char- the aid of a magnetizer. Modern forms of the hypnotic scene match the two kinds of acter, an event or an accident are as vivid as the real thing[ In the relationship with the hypnotist, the members of the crowd choose to offer their gazes Only images, the only element their thought is fed by, can impress, frighten or seduce to the hypnotist so as to get them back serialized all of them see the same things and the crowds, becoming the motive of any of their actions.

In short, the hypnotic metaphor magnetizer not to be present, physically, but rather symbolically, through the text. And this However, one further phenomenon seems to be interesting: the overlap between cine- is not all: from these operations, the hypnotic metaphor creates expectations, desires, ma and hypnosis only fully occurs at the beginning of the Twenties, at the very willingness in the social bodies. No less than other social situations, film viewing is sub- moment of a twofold recomposition: of the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the ject to such a symbolic efficacy9 that knowledge, learning and social tales determine social hypnosis on one side; of the social and inter-individual on the other.

This organ- role-takings, physical states, and emotional reactions. This reconnection is where the new what is not present in the device. This imaginary integration occurs, in particular, modern magnetic scene comes from: it is embodied in the imaginary and removed through two correlated aspects. We have seen how, since its origins, hypnosis emerges as a relationship and the watching subject himself, do not exist but in connection with the Father and that awakens images from gazes.

Hypnosis is first of all and originally an interpersonal his gaze. The stage model of hypnosis is embedded in the origins of every other scene of relationship, a kind of interaction. In other words, every hypnotized subject is part of an audience, even tized, that is to say, it concentrates and re-absorbs the whole world, together with when he is the only member.

An entrapped, isolated, subdued audience. This concept is not only found throughout the history hypnotic scene, just recomposed, is ready to enter the darkness of the movie theatre of hypnosis it is hypnosis: basically it is to be found from Mesmer to Freud. However, straightaway.

Maybe it is not merely a coincidence that Massenpsychologie und Ich- when applied to the situation of film viewing, it has to face a notable difficulty: there is Analyse was published in the same year when Epstein published the essay no hypnotist in the movie theater, but only a group of spectators and a screen on which Grossissement and Fritz Lang filmed Dr. Mabuse, der Spieler.

The only way to keep the hypnotic metaphor is then to invent a non-existent relationship. In order for the metaphor to be effective, and for the fruition scene to consequently have its meaning, it is necessary to The rule of metaphor turn the imaginary interpersonal relationship between spectator and screen into a per- sonal relationship between the spectator and a person who is there, watches him, talks We now come to the second question introduced at the beginning of this chapter — to him, shows him some images, tells him a story.

In other words, the metaphor What is left of this metaphor in the history of cinema? What shape has it taken, what of hypnosis helps build a social visibility of the film viewing scene and of the film utopias has it fed, what models has it given life to? And what ruins of an unfulfilled fruition experience, thanks to the restoration and overlap of categories well known in future has it caused?

It seems as if the answer were to be searched for according to three this period, such as the hypnosis of crowds. And most of all, he will see the cinema ma. Thirdly, the ter than the others do. The government itself, as Le Bon concludes, has to buy some movie the- idea that the movie spectator is absorbed in a hypnotic state goes through the history of atres and become film distributor and producer. See G. This is destined to surge in some American horror films After a new period of silence or, better, a period in which the subject is hidden inside B class horror movies the theme comes out anew in certain art movies of the Eighties Von Trier, Bigas Luna , by the time fully aware of their metafic- titious implications and consequences.

To study the way these three projections of the hypnotic metaphor in the movie have or have not been correlated and synchronized is the concern of a work that still needs to be done. Kaes ed. Lherminier, vol. For further in- depth study and bibliography refer to this volume. Special thanks to Raymond Bellour and Francesco Casetti for following this work with attention and encouragement.

The reader is reminded that Les Contemplations is the title Hugo gave to his poems collection Le Bon, Psychologie des foules Paris: Alcan, , our trans. The main model of such an imaginative force is no longer identified by Le Bon in the magic lantern shows, but rather in plays.

One should not be surprised by the conclusion of this theory concerning the relationship between hallucination, hypnosis and crowds. Instead of revealing the true workings of nature by arming the flawed senses with technological devices, the instrument was used to feed upon these very flaws and perceptual lacks to produce the mimetic illusion of motion for an audience seeking visual and other pleasures and craved for tricks being played on their senses.

Magic tricks and conjurers acts the instru- ment of science was made to perform, its purity spoiled, its innocence corrupted, its rep- Cinema has been abducted. It has been robbed from the nurturing womb of science, utation damaged and destroyed beyond repair.

Such as the quarters of popular tastes, fast money and cultural pretense. Barely an infant, cinema thoroughly distorted views of science and scientists, the Dr. Nothing but slander and mockery also in the relentless analytical onslaughts tive conflict. Needless to say, cinema was thoroughly corrupted by the company it was forced to And the most cutting mockery being perhaps that those films happy endings, the keep.

What I propose therefore for the remainder of this essay is an ini- series of inventions along the path of inevitable and rational progress, Jean-Louis tial query into a topic of research that could produce knowledge about various modes Comolli, perhaps one of the most radical proponents of the apparatus theorists, of professional spectatorship of cinema. Understanding the social context of the laboratory — its We can place him or her? Neither as public spectacle may well become crucial.

If the fessional spectators, aside from the analytical viewer produced by the disciplinary pro- rigid protocols of empirically produced knowledge, the modes of reading that trans- tocols of film analysis and the cultural character of the film critic.

The contract that transforms visual reception to public spectacle. It has been constructed as a normative pro- 1 Many a cultural movement, suspicious and impatient of the very popularity of film, such as tocol of reading such as the training film studies students or oncologists receive.

His gaze is trained to produce signatures of troops, military equipment and 3 See M. Weise, Medizinische Kinematographie Dresden: Steinkopff, , p. Weise installations. To reduce the complexity of the image he has been disciplined by training reports that Doyen claimed to use the cinematographic records of his surgery to review his to read signs in a pre-determined way. There are most likely manuals, curricula, insti- own performance and thus optimize his technique.

Why these films were made public then tutions of education that teach this particular mode of reading. To some extent the and could thus become early sensations of horror, awaits an explanation. A film made in mode of reading is implemented in the technical equipment itself — such as automatic depicting Dr. Doyen during the performance of an amputation is part of the compilation devices that record time, location and spatial identifiers.

A particular medium of Origins of Scientific Cinema. Tosi, Adorno, M. The register of pleasure is most likely displaced context. Salt, Film Style and Technology: History and Analysis London: By means of this institutionally determined and rigidly controlled closed circuit of Starword, [] have done their best to reveal this scandalous mistreatment as entire- production and reception, scientific cinema of this sort may well exhibit one of its ly groundless misunderstandings.

Heath eds. While popular media can never secure this, the 12 L. Cartwright, Screening the Body. Duden, Disembodying Women: Perspectives on Pregnancy and the Unborn Cambridge: al spectatorship that works within a different register of producing knowledge — pre- Harvard University Press, Yet — as opposed to Crary tions of pictorial representation for the presentation of scientific data;19 it could also — posits the emergence of early cinema as the vantage point of her study. The screening room of the studio has quite frequently been a location in filmic narrative such as the sequences at the beginning of Citizen Kane O.

Truffaut, Wachowsky, can- not be interested in presenting its spectators the experience of bullets in slow-motion cine- matography for pleasure. Del resto, come qualcuno di finzione tridimensionale. Alla troverso del cinema, in particolare italiano. La seconda tappa di questa storia italiana, lungo la quale spingersi, si colloca attorno al Naturalmente soggetto e sceneggiatura erano questa volta un poco a rime obbligate.

Compresa la scena finale, in cui una direttamente stereoscopico. Martinez e figli, al binocolo stereoscopico di Emilio Bertos, allo stereoscopio Cinemason e alle scoperte di Jellinek. Troppo spesso infatti si dimentica che la stereoscopia cinematografi- buon Guido Brignone. George Sidney, Gualtiero Gualtierotti fosse infatti indirizzato innanzitutto alla ricerca del colore.

Per quanto la stereoscopia possa prendere piede, essa appare comunque incapace di denza forse non casuale. Ben venga. Firenze che e modo di ottenerle. Tali erano i miei ricordi stereoscopici. Ma confesso che non vedevo quale rapporto potesse correre tra mio zio e un film. Privativa del 3 nine.

Privativa del 18 gennaio — D. Privativa del 5 maggio Firenze — D. Sandro Bernardi. Lipton, to in Francia a datare dal 12 settembre Foundations of the Stereoscopic Cinema. Hayes, 3-D Movies. Morgan, D. Symmes, Amazing 3-D. Lefebvre, P. Michaud sous la dir. Zannier, op. Dickson ; cit. Va ricordato che a Holmes si dovette nel la costruzione di un appa- al sistema Teleview di L. Hammond e W. Cassidy , tuttavia il cinema stereo- recchio che ebbe grandissima fortuna e diffusione.

Gruber Pellerin sous la dir. Le premier film en 7 D. Pellerin, op. Fenomeni analoghi sono riscontrabili in area italiana vd. Su questi 22 La tecnica anaglifica introdotta da Louis Ducos du Hauron nel riproponeva la visione aspetti vd. Zannier, Storia della fotografia italiana Bari: Laterza, Rondolino, Storia del cinema Torino: Utet, , p.

Resta anche testimonianza del- D. Sorlin, The Film in History. Restaging the Past Oxford: Basic Blackwell, ; trad. La 25 Nozze vagabonde, naz. Italia; regia Guido Brignone; visto di censura n. Interpretazioni del passato Firenze: La Nuova Italia, , in part. Alle notizie 12 D. Falconi e O. Biancoli; Sceneggiatura di G. Brignone e F. Eckart; operatore Anchise Brizzi versio- 14 Vd.

Galassi, Prima della fotografia Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, , cfr. Aumont, ne piatta e Luigi Reverso versione stereoscopica ; sistema stereoscopico ing. Gualtierotti; aiuto regista e montatore ing. Giuseppe Fatigati; tecnico del suono: Giovanni Paris; 15 F.

Casetti, Il cinema e lo sguardo novecentesco Milano: I. Burch, op. Casetti, op. Uccello, Cinema. Tecnica e linguaggio Roma: Edizioni Paoline, , p. Caporali, op. Clueb, Cappabianca, Il cinema e il sacro Genova: Le Mani, , p. Il film venne realizzato con il Sistema 33 A. Bernardini, Cinema italiano Le imprese di produzione Roma: Anica, , p. Uccello la realizzazione; si trattava di un procedimento stereoscopico a lenti polarizzate. Ortoleva, Il videotelefono, in M. In Italia i sistemi collet- zio della sala e dello schermo vd.

Belton, Widescreen Cinema Cambridge: Harvard tivi troveranno pieno perfezionamento solo nel con il Sistema Betti procedimento a University Press, Guido Brignone e il primo film stereoscopico: Nozze vagabonde , pp. IV di copertina; Anon. Gazzetta del Popolo 19 giugno Le canzoni come la musica erano del maestro Nino Ravasini anche successivamen- te noto per alcuni famosi motivi canori. Dipinti e sculture del sole. Norling in 3D sistema polarizzato e Technicolor.

Ad essa fa seguito il Festival britannico del dove Raymond Spottiswoode era direttore della Sezione pellicole stereoscopiche e stereofoniche, tra le quali le famose anima- zioni di Norman Mc Laren per il National Film Board canadese. After all, Youngblood continued to repeat his theory as many as twenty years later, extending it to all the new technologies that were developed in the meantime, when in he stat- ed that a revolution in communications should concern its self with creating a medium The theory of Expanded Cinema, taken from the title of a famous and enlightening by combining television, computer, telephone, and satellite in one sole multimedia net- book by Gene Youngblood — and never translated into Italian , which, in Europe, work that is run by the consumer, and which should be used free of charge, and intend- has probably been quoted from more often than it has been read cover to cover, is usu- ed, he added, to change mass communications into inter-subjective conversation.

Brown, Marcuse, and Laing —, toward a polymorphic con- creative fervor. It establishes meaning in life, creates The expansion and explosion of the cinematographic image also takes the matter of mediating channels between man and man, man and society.

The 16mm film, without a title , made by John Whitney Jr. Whereas most multiple his Labyrinthe for the Expo in Montreal in , and Francis Thompson, seem to be projections is gratuitous and arbitrary, the Whitney film is a cohesive whole, each element inspired by the same profoundly experimental and innovative passion, more than they accentuating and complementing the other two in ways that make the experience incom- are by the search for a technology that is surprising or spectacular, in the most banal plete without all three parts.

The flanking images are identical, though reversed, so as to and brutal sense. Among the other characteristics of the multiple vision Labyrinthe, we frame the center screen symmetrically, and the close synchronization of form and color may note the horizontal projection at times together with a perpendicular, vertical among the screens demands highly controlled projection conditions.

And here, as we will see, Whitney Sr. Some examples are: James types for a different but not marginal spectacularity, entrusted, only for the moment, to Seawright, Otto Piene, the Cathode Karma by Nam June Paik, the decollages by Wolf randomness. Clarke and Douglas Trumbull. Cinema has gone from will go beyond being merely a medium for telling stories. Of course, Chion wrote, a decline in the spoken word in favor of a landscape of sound.

Since this is not a physical reality, it must be a metaphysical reali- ually transforming into other images: metamorphosis. What we see on the screen is not an act. This is mythopoiet- ty, a concept that has completely transformed all aspects of contemporary existence ic reality. In one sense it renders fiction obsolete. It is a richness that, on film, reveals itself it in experimental and underground productions, as well as in video art.

In it, Vasulka intertwines vast- a real communicative and relational dimension of television technology a dimension ly varied and fragmented visual references into a continuous stream; he reconstructs a which Brecht sincerely wished for radio in the thirties , which is able to put real peo- film made up of many films, photographs, pages from books about utopias, wars, and ple and far-away experiences in touch.

It is not by chance that the book he has been revolutions in the past century , which unfold in ever-changing shapes and forms against working on for the past fifteen years, Electronic Cafe: The Challenge To Create on The the majestic landscape of New Mexico. On various occasions Vasulka, has, in fact, been Same Scale As We Can Destroy, opens with the pioneering research and the famous open about his aversion to editing, and about his research on the transition of images, performances of two authors, Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz, who, as early as which continually change in space and time.

Their Electronic Cafe ciations that moves on through wipes, and not cuts. It was both a social and public concept of cinema, which had defined the characteristics of narrative, thanks to an interactive mechanism. And, adds characterized part of the European avant-garde movement of the twenties in particu- Vasulka, they are able to unhinge the renaissance prospective that has dominated the con- lar in the Soviet Union , that led to the idea of a screen set up in public places and the struction of the images up to the present.

A digital version of the soft transition from one prefiguring, de facto, of TV. Youngblood modern day audiovisual methods. The subject is, there- vision, spherical, labyrinthine. Since light is both a Leaving behind film-makers and independent video makers for the moment, one of metaphor and a synonym for knowledge, the spectators as well as the characters on the the film-directors, and later video-directors, who have studied the changes that have screen, should come out of the darkness, and be brought out into the light in the same taken place in the relationship between the on screen, the off screen and the reversed manner: both as protagonists of the work and of life.

In his A TV Dante with Tom Phillips, , he combines Now, it is obvious that the Imax and Omnimax cinema halls follow a different objec- the techniques of soft transition and superimposed images, and the extreme fragmen- tive; they mean to fascinate and be sensationally spectacular, which is totally in line tation of the collage inside the frame: the image — he says — is forced into the frame like with the commercial approach to cinema.

If we take a look and the absence of pressing socio-political needs, puts distance between Greenaway at the iconographic wealth of Expanded Cinema we are surprised at the number of and the author of the utopian and political tensions of Expanded Cinema.

Yet, the roads, as we have sought to underline, are still time multivision for spectators who, in Belfort, France, layed on the ground to watch open; these ideas have found a narrow aperture, and have been able to make space for screens of at different heights inside a huge, glass hall. There are hundreds of examples themselves and cross different settings in which their energy has proved to be artistically can go from installations, to video environments, to interactive environments: the vibrant and theoretically prolific.

I have a political approach to utopian thinking these days. For them, an idea is utopian if it is beyond the practice in most modern day video art, just as the use of tiny video cameras has spread psychological capacity or abilities of humanity. We are not capable of doing it, so it is impos- and affirmed itself: they allow an ever-growing production of a type of diaristic regis- sible, i. I say that is not an answer, it is the problem.

It is the dream of freedom, equality, and fulfillment. The effect go beyond the cut in favor of a patient digging into the image, a sort of mostly even critics are blind — wrote Jonas Mekas. An women creating a new cinema, opening new visions — but we need critics and an audience image can be elaborated for years, endlessly We need an audience that is willing to educate, to expand nation on why she prefers the term video-processing to the term editing; Irit Batsry uses their eyes.

A new cinema needs new eyes to see it. Albertini, S. Lischi eds. Saggi practice cinema — film, video, computer, holography — just as there are many instruments di pensiero elettronico Pisa: ETS, , 2nd edition Published in the same volume is the through which we can practice music. Gazzano ed. The Festival invited Youngblood to hold a rytelling. Colombo ed. Vasulka in D. Bonitzer, Le Champ aveugle. Supplemental Issue, and the weighty work on Bill Viola, Youngblood has also edited the videodisc edition of the works of ; later in Cinema arte figurativa Turin: Einaudi, Cieutat, J.

Flecniakoska eds. Quel che resta nella cornice. Greenaway in M. Youngblood in Evola, op. Kepes ed. In the texts of Movie Journal from and we can find the expressions 35 A. Melitopulos in M. Cargioli ed. Lebrat ed. Il cinema indipendente americano degli troniche.

Also anni Sessanta Milano: Ubulibri, Beau, Ph. Dubois, G. Leblanc eds. Rieser, A. Nelle ultime puntate della sesta stagione , guidato dalla voce di Qui-Gon Jinn , cerca di comprendere come mantenere il proprio spirito dopo la morte attraverso numerose prove che lo metteranno a dura prova. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Segui i suggerimenti del progetto di riferimento. URL consultato il 4 ottobre URL consultato il 17 aprile URL consultato il 21 maggio URL consultato il 4 luglio URL consultato il 29 giugno URL consultato il 23 giugno URL consultato il 2 gennaio archiviato dall' url originale il 15 giugno URL consultato il 25 febbraio URL consultato il 15 febbraio URL consultato l'8 aprile URL consultato il 21 marzo Portale Animazione.

Portale Fantascienza. Portale Guerre stellari. Portale Televisione. Categorie nascoste: Voci con modulo citazione e parametro pagina Wikificare - Guerre stellari Wikificare - febbraio P assente su Wikidata. Menu di navigazione Strumenti personali Accesso non effettuato discussioni contributi registrati entra. Namespace Voce Discussione. Visite Leggi Modifica Modifica wikitesto Cronologia. Aggiungi collegamenti. Anakin Skywalker.

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