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Blyth Power Station also known as Cambois Power Station refers to a pair of now demolished coal-fired power stations, which were located on the Northumberland coast in North East England. Bodinnick Bosdinek, meaning fortified dwelling is a riverside village in south-east Cornwall, in the United Kingdom. Bog-wood, also known as abonos and morta, especially amongst pipe smokers, is a material from trees that have been buried in peat bogs and preserved from decay by the acidic and anaerobic bog conditions, sometimes for hundreds or even thousands of years.

The Bogdanovskoye is a large coal field located in the east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast. A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. A boilersuit is a loose fitting garment covering the whole body except for the head, hands and feet. According to the, it has a population of people.

The Bolsover Colliery Company was a major mining concern established to extract coal from land owned by the Duke of Portland. A former mill town, Bolton has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition. The urbanisation and development of the town largely coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Bolton was a 19th-century boomtown, and at its zenith in its cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world.

The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, and by the s cotton manufacture had virtually ceased in Bolton. It is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the administrative centre. The town of Bolton has a population of ,, whilst the wider metropolitan borough has a population of , Historically part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors.

In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, and as a result was stormed by 3, Royalist troops led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine in In what became known as the Bolton Massacre, 1, residents were killed and were taken prisoner. Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act National Thermal Power Station in kokrajhar is under construction power project located at Salakati near Kokrajhar in Kokrajhar district in Indian state of Assam.

Also referred to as the Izmail class, they were laid down in late All dates used in this article are New Style Gregorian. The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron B , aluminium Al , gallium Ga , indium In , thallium Tl , and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium Nh.

The is a diesel-powered replica of a small-gauge steam locomotive installed in the city of Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan in as the original Iyo Railway. Bottom ash is part of the non-combustible residue of combustion in a furnace or incinerator.

Bowen is a coastal town and locality in the Whitsunday Region on the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The genus Bowenia includes two living and two fossil species of cycads in the family Stangeriaceae, sometimes placed in their own family Boweniaceae. The Bowes Railway, built by George Stephenson in , is the world's only operational preserved standard gauge cable railway system.

Bowmore is a distillery that produces scotch whisky on the isle of Islay, an island of the Inner Hebrides. A boxcar is a North American railroad car that is enclosed and generally used to carry freight. Boyne was a 1, ton, Nourse Line sailing ship that T. Oswald of Southampton built in BP plc stylised as bp , formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. The British Railways standard class 2 T was a class of steam locomotive, one of the standard classes of the s.

The British Railways Standard Class 4 tank is a class of steam locomotive, one of the BR standard classes built during the s. The Standard class 6, otherwise known as the Clan Class, was a class of ''Pacific'' tender steam locomotive designed by Robert Riddles for use by British Railways.

Bracken Hall Countryside Centre and Museum is a children's museum, natural history education centre and nature centre established in at Bracken Hall on the edge of Baildon Moor, close to Shipley Glen in West Yorkshire. The Brakemen's Brotherhood was an early American railroad brotherhood established in A branch line is a secondary railway line which branches off a more important through route, usually a main line.

Rio Grande do Norte was a destroyer of the Brazilian Navy, serving from to Santa Catarina was a destroyer of the Brazilian Navy, serving from to Child Labor: An American History. Armonk, N. Sharpe, Breconshire or Brecknockshire was a constituency in Wales which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the English Parliament, and later to the Parliament of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom, between and Breitenbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Bridgend Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr Pen-y-bont , meaning "the end or head of the bridge on the Ogmore" is a town in Bridgend County Borough in Wales, west of the capital Cardiff and east of Swansea. Bridgewater Collieries originated from the coal mines on the Manchester Coalfield in Worsley in the historic county of Lancashire owned by Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater in the second half of the 18th century.

Brier Hill is a neighborhood in Youngstown, Ohio, that was once viewed as the city's "Little Italy" district. A briquette or briquet is a compressed block of coal dust or other combustible biomass material such as charcoal, sawdust, wood chips, peat, or paper used for fuel and kindling to start a fire. The Bristol Coalfield is a geologically complex coalfield in the west of England. Brithdir is a small village in the northern part of the Rhymney Valley near New Tredegar, in the county borough of Caerphilly, south Wales, and within the historic boundaries of Glamorgan.

British Columbia's carbon tax and accompanying tax shift has been in place since The British Iron Company was formed in to smelt and manufacture iron and to mine ironstone, coal, etc. Britt is a community in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the unincorporated township of Wallbridge in the Parry Sound District.

Broadstairs is a coastal town on the Isle of Thanet in the Thanet district of east Kent, England, about east of London. Brooketon Colliery, formerly known as Muara Coal Mine, was one of the underground coal mines in Brunei.

Brownsville is a borough in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States, first settled in as the site of a trading post a few years after the pacification of the Iroquois enabled a post-Revolutionary war resumption of westward migration. Bruce Mansfield Power Plant is a 2. Bryan K. Brymbo is a local government community, the lowest tier of local government, part of Wrexham County Borough in Wales.

The Bude Canal was a canal built to serve the hilly hinterland in the Devon and Cornwall border territory in the United Kingdom, chiefly to bring lime-bearing sand for agricultural fertiliser. The Budryk coal mine is a large mine in the south of Poland in Ornontowice, Silesian Voivodeship, km south-west of the capital, Warsaw. The Buenos Aires Western Railway in Spanish: Ferrocarril Oeste de Buenos Aires , inaugurated in the city of Buenos Aires on 29 August , was the first railway built in Argentina and the start of the extensive rail network which was developed over the following years.

The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway was one of the more than ten thousand railroad companies founded in North America. Building the Virginian Railway began as a project to create an -long short line railroad to provide access for shipping of untapped bituminous coal reserves in southern West Virginia early in the 20th century. Buildwas railway station was an important bustling junction station after the opening of the Severn Valley Railway on 1 February Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities.

Bulwell is an old English market town about northwest of Nottingham city centre, on the northern edge of the city. Bunbury is a coastal city in Western Australia, approximately south of the state capital, Perth. A bunghole or bungehole is a hole bored in a liquid-tight barrel to remove contents. Bunkering is the supply of fuel for use by ships, and includes the shipboard logistics of loading fuel and distributing it among available bunker tanks.

The Bunsen cell is a zinc-carbon primary cell colloquially called a "battery" composed of a zinc anode in dilute sulfuric acid separated by a porous pot from a carbon cathode in nitric or chromic acid. The Bureau of Land Management BLM is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than of public lands in the United States which constitutes one-eighth of the landmass of the country.

The Burma Mines Railway is a gauge railway in Myanmar for the transportation of locally mined silver and lead ore to a smelter at Namtu. Burning the Future: Coal in America is a documentary film produced and directed by David Novack. Burntisland Bruntisland is a royal burgh and parish in Fife, Scotland, on the northern shore of the Firth of Forth.

Bustuchin Coal Mine is an open-pit mining exploitation, one of the largest in Romania located in Bustuchin, Gorj County with estimated coal reserves of The C class as designated in was a heterogeneous group of torpedo boat destroyers TBDs built for the Royal Navy in the lates. The term cab forward refers to various rail and road vehicle designs that place the driver's compartment substantially farther towards the front than is common practice.

Cadomin is a hamlet in the west-central Alberta, Canada within Yellowhead County. Caim is a Gaelic rendering of biblical 'Cain', who appears in a variation of the fantastical pedigree of Dardanus of Troy that is spun out in Lebor Bretnach, the Middle Irish language recension of the compilation called Historia Brittonum, known in the 9th century version by Nennius.

Calamites is a genus of extinct arborescent tree-like horsetails to which the modern horsetails genus Equisetum are closely related. Calcium magnesium acetate CMA is a deicer and can be used as an alternative to road salt. The Caledonian Railway Class were freight tender engines introduced in and designed by William Pickersgill. The Caledonian Railway Class was a class of tank locomotives built for dock shunting.

The Caledonian Railway Class were 3-cylinder steam locomotives that were used on the Caledonian Railway from The Calenberg Land Calenberger Land is a historic landscape southwest of Hanover in Germany, roughly formed by the countryside between the Leine and the Deister hills. The California Green Chemistry Initiative CGCI is a six-part initiative to reduce public and environmental exposure to toxins through improved knowledge and regulation of chemicals; two parts became statute in Calvin Pardee July 7, — March 18, was a businessman from Pennsylvania.

The Cambrian Railways Class 89s were an tender locomotive introduced by Jones in for general use over their system, upon grouping they became Great Western Railway class 15 and were reboilered from onwards with Swindon parts. Cambuslang Cammuslang, from Camas Lang is a suburban town on the south-eastern outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland. The Camps for Climate Action are campaign gatherings similar to peace camps that take place to draw attention to, and act as a base for direct action against, major carbon emitters, as well as to develop ways to create a zero-carbon society.

Army training facility constructed in for what became the 10th Mountain Division. Camp Morton also known as Camp Douglas was a coal mining encampment on Svalbard island in Norway also known as Spitsbergen. The Campine French or De Kempen Dutch is a natural region situated chiefly in north-eastern Belgium and parts of the south-eastern Netherlands which once consisted mainly of extensive moors, tracts of sandy heath, and wetlands. Canada—Colombia relations are foreign relations between Canada and the Republic of Colombia.

Canada and the Republic of China also known as Taiwan maintain unofficial bilateral relations since The Canadian Centre for Energy Information CCEI is a non-profit organization created by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers CAPP in to create a voice for the Canadian oil and gas industry on all aspects of the Canadian energy system from oil, natural gas, coal, geo-thermal, and hydroelectric power through to nuclear, solar, wind, and other sources of energy, with a focus on hydrocarbon energy sources.

New Brunswick applies to decisions of the Governor in Council of Canada i. Running from north north-east to south south-west, the canal runs parallel to the Orne River which feeds it, it is long, and comprises two locks. Digging began in , and when it was opened on August 23, it was only deep. It was deepened in The canal began with the dock at St. The canal is made up of a group of quays and docks.

The current depth is, and the width can reach in the dock of Calix. The quay at Blainville-sur-Orne measures more than. It acts as the fourth commercial French port for the importation of exotic wood, generally coming from the Gulf of Guinea. It also loads and unloads iron, fertilizer, coal, and construction material. The port exports cereals that are produced in the area and has a silo capacity of 33, tons.

One of the two locks at the port of Ouistreham, at the mouth of the canal, can accommodate ships of more than length. Also at Blainville is a Renault Trucks manufacturing plant. The plant is across the canal from the town, to the southeast, between the canal and the Orne River. Just across the river from the plant is the community of Colombelles. The canal was considered both tactically and strategically important during the opening phases of the Battle of Normandy, as it was located on the eastern flank of the Allied beachhead area.

The bridge was replaced in The Canonbie Coalfield is a small and largely concealed coalfield at Canonbie in the south of Scotland. Cantal is a department administrative province in south-central France, with its capital at Aurillac.

Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is a national monument protecting an archaeologically-significant landscape located in the southwestern region of the U. Cape Woolamai is a small town and headland at the south eastern tip of Phillip Island in Victoria, Australia. Capital costs are fixed, one-time expenses incurred on the purchase of land, buildings, construction, and equipment used in the production of goods or in the rendering of services.

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Carbochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of coals bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, graphite, and charcoal into useful products and raw materials. Carbon from carbo "coal" is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

Carbon capture and storage CCS or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation. Carbon County is a county located in the U. As of the census, the population was 65, Another railroad first, the first railway to operate steam locomotives as traction engines and prime movers in the United States was the Beaver Meadows Railroad, which connected from mines west of Beaver Meadows and Weatherly on the opposite side of Broad Mountain along a water path through the Lehigh Gorge at Penn Haven Junction once supporting five railroads to the Lehigh Canal opposite Lehighton.

It is considered part of the state's Coal Region, though the eastern and northeastern sections are considered part of the Pocono Mountains—since they are east of the Lehigh River, the demarcation arbitrarily separating very similar mountain ridge and valley systems. Carbon Energy Limited former name: Metex Resources Limited is an Australian global energy technology provider and services company with expertise in unconventional syngas extraction utilising its proprietary Underground Coal Gasification UCG technology.

A carbon footprint is historically defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organisation, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent. The Carbon Market is the oldest and largest farmer's market in Cebu City, located in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines, and is a major tourist attraction. Carbon monoxide CO is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon respiration also called carbon emissions and carbon releases is used in combination with carbon fixation to gauge carbon flux as CO2 between atmospheric carbon and the global carbon cycle.

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period. Carbon, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons. Carbon-based fuel is any fuel principally from the oxidation or burning of carbon. The Carbon-Thompson is a large coal field located in the western part of Canada in Alberta.

Carbonia is a town and comune, which along with Iglesias was a co-capital of the former province of Carbonia-Iglesias, now suppressed and incorporated in the Province of South Sardinia. It is located in the south-west of the island, at about an hour by car or train from the regional capital, Cagliari. The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago Mya , to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

Carboniferous Limestone is a collective term for the succession of limestones occurring widely throughout Great Britain and Ireland that were deposited during the Dinantian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period. Carbonization or carbonisation is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.

Cardinal Power Plant is a 1. The Carmichael coal mine is a proposed thermal coal mine in the north of the Galilee Basin in Central Queensland, Australia. Carniola Slovene, Kranjska; Krain; Carniola; Krajna was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia.

Caroline Still Anderson November 1, — June 1 or 2, was an American physician, educator, and activist. Carrington Power Station is a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine power station, which was completed in Autumn and began commercial operation on 18 September Carroll A.

Deering was a five-masted commercial schooner that was found run aground off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in Carrot River is a town located in northeast Saskatchewan population: in Canada. Carville Power Station refers to a pair of now partially demolished coal-fired power stations, situated in North East England on the north bank of the River Tyne at Wallsend.

Castor Oyl is a fictional character, created in by cartoonist Elzie Crisler Segar for his comic strip Thimble Theatre, now known as Popeye. Among the causes of World War II were Italian fascism in the s, Japanese militarism and invasion of China in the s, and especially the political takeover in of Germany by Hitler and his Nazi Party and its aggressive foreign policy. Cave research, encompassing the study of speleology and biospeleology, is still in its infancy in India.

Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol ethyl alcohol produced from cellulose the stringy fiber of a plant rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit. Cement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture of Portland and other types of hydraulic cement, in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica-bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates. A cenosphere is a lightweight, inert, hollow sphere made largely of silica and alumina and filled with air or inert gas, typically produced as a byproduct of coal combustion at thermal power plants.

Central Alabama is the region in the state of Alabama that stretches miles km from its western border with Mississippi to the eastern border with Georgia and miles km from the northern border of Cullman County to the Alabama River in southern Autauga County. A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building or portion of a building from one point to multiple rooms. The Central Lowlands or Midland Valley is a geologically defined area of relatively low-lying land in southern Scotland.

Ceptura Coal Mine is an open-pit mining exploitation it is considered one of the largest in the country of Romania located in Ceptura, Prahova County with estimated coal reserves of 18 million tonnes. The Cesar is a large coal field located in the north of Colombia in Cesar department. Chadderton Power Station refers to a series of two coal-fired power stations, which were situated at Chadderton, Greater Manchester in North West England. Chandrapur is a municipal corporation in Chandrapur district, Maharashtra state, India.

Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. Channahon is a village in Grundy and Will counties in the U. Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charles H. Marshall was a ton packet ship built by William H.

Webb in The Charles H. Spencer was a stern-wheel steamboat that was briefly used on the Colorado River to transport coal for gold refining operations at Lee's Ferry, Arizona. The Charles P. Charles W. February 15, — March 2, was an American businessman who controlled an international mining and metals conglomerate, as well as a major owner in Thoroughbred horse racing, and a candidate in the New Jersey State Senate Elections.

Charleston is the most populous city in, and the capital of, the U. A checkweighman occasionally checkmeasurer or checkweigher is a person who is responsible for weighing coal or another mined substance, and thereby determining the payment due to each worker. A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei that is, the same atomic number, or Z. The Compagnie des chemins de fer du Midi. The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident.

The Chervonoarmiiska—Zakhidna coal mine is a large coal mine located in the south-east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast. The Chervonokutska coal mine is an underground coal mine in the Luhansk region of Ukraine. The Chervonolymanska coal mine is a large coal mine located in the south-east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast.

The Chesapeake and Ohio class M-1 was a fleet of three steam turbine locomotives built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway in — for service on the Chessie streamliner. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway's class L-2 comprised eight coal-fired "Hudson" type steam locomotives numbered — and built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway was a Class I railroad formed in in Virginia from several smaller Virginia railroads begun in the 19th century.

Chessie System, Inc. Chesterfield County is a county located just south of Richmond in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Chesterton is a small, former mining village, located in the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England. Charles, and Elgin, Illinois. Lautaro was a sailing frigate of the Chilean Navy, originally purchased for use as a hulk, but later put into service as a training ship.

The Chiltern Main Line is an inter-urban, regional and commuter railway, part of the British railway system. A chimney fire is the combustion burning of residue deposits referred to as soot or creosote, on the inner surfaces of chimney tiles, flue liners, stove pipes, etc. The China railways JS class was a type of tender steam locomotive manufactured for use on mainline freight trains, as well as for heavy shunting. The China Railways KD7 type steam locomotive was a type of mainline general purpose steam locomotive.

The China Railways LD1 class steam locomotive was a class of streamlined T tank steam locomotives for passenger trains operated by the China Railway. China Shenhua Energy Company Limited known as Shenhua or China Shenhua or Shenhua Energy is the largest coal mining state-owned enterprise in Mainland China, and the largest coal mining enterprise in the world.

China Wind Systems, Inc. Chirimiri Coalfield is located in Koriya district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh in the valley of the Hasdeo River, a tributary of the Mahanadi. Chita Oblast p was a federal subject of Russia an oblast in southeast Siberia, Russia. Chobham Common is a area of temperate lowland heath, a globally rare and threatened habitat due to rare soil type, in Surrey, England. Chorley is a market town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston and north west of Manchester.

Christopher "Chris" Cline born July 5, is an American mining entrepreneur and philanthropist. A Christmas stocking is an empty sock or sock-shaped bag that is hung on Christmas Eve so that Santa Claus or Father Christmas can fill it with small toys, candy, fruit, coins or other small gifts when he arrives.

The Chuitna Coal Project is a proposed coal strip mine that, if granted state and federal permits, would be built about southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in an area known as the Beluga Coal Fields near the Chuitna River and the small communities of Tyonek and Beluga in upper Cook Inlet. City of Adelaide is a clipper ship, built in Sunderland, England, and launched on 7 May City of Washington was an American merchant steamship that aided in rescuing the crew of the USS ''Maine'' when it exploded in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, in Civitavecchia meaning "ancient town" is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio.

The Clackmannan Group is the name given to a suite of rocks of late Dinantian and Namurian age laid down during the Carboniferous period in the Midland Valley of Scotland. Clarke Thomas Reed born is a businessman and investor from Greenville, Mississippi, who was from to the state chairman of the Mississippi Republican Party. A classification yard American and Canadian English or marshalling yard British, Hong Kong, Indian, Australian and Canadian English is a railway yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railway cars onto one of several tracks.

Clayton-Tamm is a traditionally Irish-American neighborhood located near the western border of St. The Clean Air Act 42 U. Sir Clement Clerke, 1st Baronet died was an important but financially unsuccessful English entrepreneur, whose greatest achievement was the application of the reverberatory furnace cupola to smelting lead and copper, and to remelting pig iron for foundry purposes.

Clermont is an agricultural town and locality in the Isaac Region, Queensland, Australia. Cleveland-Cliffs, Inc. Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming controversy. Because of global warming, there has been concern in the United States and internationally, that the country should reduce total greenhouse gas which is relatively high per capita and is the second largest in the world after China, as of On a per-person basis, Wyoming emits more carbon dioxide than any other state or any other country: of it per capita a year, because of burning coal, which provides nearly all of the state's electrical power.

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change. Climate change mitigation scenarios are possible futures in which global warming is reduced by deliberate actions, such as a comprehensive switch to energy sources other than fossil fuels.

Global climate change was first addressed in United States policy beginning in the early s. Clinker is a general name given to waste from industrial processes, particularly those that involve smelting metals, welding, burning fossil fuels and use of a blacksmith's forge, which commonly causes a large buildup of clinker around the tuyere.

Clive Frederick Palmer born 26 March is an Australian businessman and former politician. A clothes iron is a roughly triangular surface that, when heated, is used to press clothes to remove creases. Cloud Peak Energy Inc. Clydach is a large village and community in the City and County of Swansea, Wales, falling within Clydach ward and the Llangyfelach Parish. Coal analysis techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals.

A coal ball is a type of concretion, varying in shape from an imperfect sphere to a flat-lying, irregular slab. A coal bin, coal store or coal bunker is a storage container for coal awaiting use or transportation. A coal breaker is a coal processing plant which breaks coal into various useful sizes.

This article includes lists representing proven reserves and production of coal by country. Coal combustion products CCPs , also called coal combustion wastes CCWs or coal combustion residuals CCRs , are categorized in four groups, each based on physical and chemical forms derived from coal combustion methods and emission controls.

A coal drop is an elevated railway track designed to allow material to fall freely between the rails onto the ground beneath. Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal. The London Coal Exchange was situated on the north side of Thames Street in the City of London, nearly opposite to Old Billingsgate Market, occupying three different structures from to Coal forests were the vast swathes of wetlands that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous Pennsylvanian and Permian times.

Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system. A coal hole is a hatch in the pavement sidewalk, in US usage above an underground coal bunker. Coal homogenization refers to the process of mixing coal to reduce the variance of the product supplied.

China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and is the largest user of coal-derived electricity. Coal is one of the largest sources of energy in Russia, accounting for South Africa produces in excess of million tonnes of coal estimate and consumes almost three quarters of that domestically. Coal India Limited CIL is an Indian state-controlled coal mining company headquartered in Kolkata, West Bengal, India and the largest coal producer company in the world and a maharatna company.

Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals. The coal measures is a lithostratigraphical term for the coal-bearing part of the Upper Carboniferous System. The Coal Measures Group is a lithostratigraphical term coined to refer to the coal-bearing succession of rock strata which occur in the United Kingdom within the Westphalian Stage of the Carboniferous Period.

Coal mining in Brazil is the country's largest source of non-renewable energy, and is an important part of Brazil's energy economy. Coal mining in Wyoming has long been a significant part of the state's economy. Coal Nunatak is a flat-topped rock mass with steep cliffs facing south, standing southwest of Corner Cliffs on the southeast coast of Alexander Island, Antarctica. A coal pier is a transloading facility designed for the transfer of coal between rail and ship.

Coal pipelines are pipelines used to transport coal from where it is mined to where it is consumed. Coal pollution mitigation, often referred to by the public relations term clean coal, is a series of systems and technologies that seek to mitigate the pollution and other environmental effects normally associated with the burning though not the mining or processing of coal, which is widely regarded as the dirtiest of the common fuels for industrial processes and power generation.

A coal "washer" in Eastern Kentucky A modern coal breaker in Mahanoy City, Pennsylvania combines washing, crushing, grading, sorting, stockpiling, and shipping in one facility built into a stockpile of anthracite coal below a mountain top strip mine A coal preparation plant CPP; also known as a coal handling and preparation plant CHPP , coal handling plant, prep plant, tipple or wash plant is a facility that washes coal of soil and rock, crushes it into graded sized chunks sorting , stockpiles grades preparing it for transport to market, and more often than not, also loads coal into rail cars, barges, or ships.

The Coal Region is a historically important coal-mining area in Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Ridge-and-valley Appalachian Mountains, comprising Lackawanna, Luzerne, Columbia, Carbon, Schuylkill, Northumberland, and the extreme northeast corner of Dauphin counties. A coal scuttle, sometimes spelled coalscuttle and also called a hod, "coal bucket", or "coal pail", is a bucket-like container for holding a small, intermediate supply of coal convenient to an indoor coal-fired stove or heater.

A coal-seam fire refers to natural burning of an outcrop or underground coal seam. The coal seams worked in the South Yorkshire Coalfield lie mainly in the middle coal measures. A coal shovel is a shovel designed for shoveling coal, coke or similar fuels, and on occasions does a double duty removing ash from the fireplace, firebox or furnace.

Coal slurry is a mixture of solids mined coal and liquids usually water produced by a coal preparation plant. Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal. A coal trimmer or trimmer is a position within the engineering department of a coal-fired ship which involves all coal handling tasks starting with the loading of coal into the ship and ending with the delivery of the coal to the stoker.

Coal mining regions are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world. Coal-water slurry fuel is a combustible mixture of fine coal particles suspended in water. Coalbed methane extraction CBM extraction is a method for extracting methane from a coal deposit. The era of the steam warship powered exclusively by coal was relatively brief, lasting from until A coaling tower, coal stage or coaling station is a facility used to load coal as fuel into railway steam locomotives.

Selling, carrying, bringing, or taking coal s to Newcastle is an idiom of British origin describing a pointless action. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis CWP , also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long-term exposure to coal dust. Cobalt extraction refers to the techniques used to extract cobalt from its ores and other compound ores. The Cobequid Mountains, also sometimes referred to as the Cobequid Hills, is a Canadian mountain range located in Nova Scotia in the mainland portion of the province.

Cockenzie power station was a coal-fired power station in East Lothian, Scotland. Co-firing is the combustion of two or more different types of materials at the same time. Cogeneration or combined heat and power CHP is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time. Cohenite is a naturally occurring iron carbide mineral with the chemical structure Fe, Ni, Co 3C. Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.

Coke Strength after Reaction CSR refers to coke "hot" strength, generally a quality reference in a simulated reaction condition in an industrial blast furnace. Coldry Process is a patented coal upgrading technology being developed in Victoria, Australia by Environmental Clean Technologies Limited based on 'brown coal densification'. Colenso Power Station was a coal-fired power station, located in Colenso on the banks of the Tugela River.

Collie is a town in the South West region of Western Australia, south of the state capital, Perth, and inland from the regional city and port of Bunbury. A collier is a bulk cargo ship designed to carry coal, especially for naval use by coal-fired warships. Collinsville is a town and locality in the Whitsunday Region, Queensland, Australia. The Colorado Plateau, also known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States.

Columbia Energy Center is a base load, sub-bituminous coal-fired, electrical power station located south of Portage in the Town of Pacific, Columbia County, Wisconsin. The Columbia Rolling Mill, an iron and steel works, operated in Uniontown, Pennsylvania from to Columbia University has an extensive tunnel system connecting most buildings on campus and acting as conduits for steam, electricity, telecommunications, and other infrastructure.

Colwick marshalling yard, also known as Colwick sidings, was a large railway marshalling yard in Netherfield, Nottingham designed for the concentration of coal traffic from the Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Coalfield for transfer to other marshalling yards in London. In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators.

Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel the reductant and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke. Combustion Engineering C-E was a multi-national American-based engineering firm and a leader in the development of both fossil and nuclear steam supply power systems in the United States with approximately 42, employees worldwide.

The Commissioners of Scotland Yard was the informal name for the Commissioners for the Streets and Wayes, a body of improvement commissioners established in to manage and regulate various areas relating to streets and traffic in the cities of London and Westminster and the borough of Southwark.

The Committee of 48 was an American liberal political association established in in the hope of creating a new political party for social reform to stand in opposition to the increasingly conservative Republican and Democratic parties. In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

Competition law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies. The Comprehensive Program for Socialist Economic Integration was set up in , laying the guidelines for Comecon activity until Conesville Power Plant is a 1. Muste, the director of Brookwood Labor College. ConocoPhillips Company is an American multinational energy corporation with its headquarters located in the Energy Corridor district of Houston, Texas in the United States.

Consall is a small village situated in the Staffordshire Moorlands, Staffordshire, England. Consett is a town in the northwest of County Durham, England, about southwest of Newcastle upon Tyne. Consett Power Station refers to numerous, now demolished coal-fired power stations situated on various sites around Consett in County Durham, North East England.

Consol Energy Inc. Australia has one of the highest per capita emissions of carbon dioxide in the world, with 0. A conveyor belt is the carrying medium of a belt conveyor system often shortened to belt conveyor. The convoy—a group of merchantmen or troopships traveling together with a naval escort—was revived during World War I —18 , after having been discarded at the start of the Age of Steam.

Cooker may refer to several types of cooking appliances and devices used for cooking foods. The Copenhagen Fire of started on Friday, 5 July , at or around 3 pm by the Navy's old base south east of Kongens Nytorv on Gammelholm, in the Navy's magazine for coal and timber, the so-called Dellehave. A cornertube boiler is a type of natural circulation water-tube boiler which differentiates itself from other water tube boilers by its characteristic water-steam cycle and a pre-separation of heated steam from the steam-water mixture occurs outside the drum and the unheated downcomers.

Cosalt plc was a diversified marine safety and leisure company, based in Grimsby, Lincolnshire. The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations , as amended is a United Kingdom Statutory Instrument that states general requirements on employers to protect employees and other persons from the hazards of substances used at work by risk assessment, control of exposure, health surveillance and incident planning.

Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey is a American science documentary television series. Before World War II, petroleum products were transported from the oil fields of Texas to the north-eastern states by sea by oil tankers. Big Muskie was a coal mining Bucyrus-Erie dragline excavator owned by the Central Ohio Coal Company formerly a division of American Electric Power , weighing and standing nearly 22 stories tall.

Geological Survey. William Henry Mathews — was a Canadian geologist, volcanologist, engineer, and professor. The Bilozerska coal mine is a large coal mine located in the south-east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast.

The Bilytska coal mine is a large coal mine located in the south-east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast. Bintulu Division is one of the twelve administrative divisions of Sarawak, Malaysia. Biodegradable polymers are a specific type of polymer that breaks down after its intended purpose to result in natural byproducts such as gases CO2, N2 , water, biomass, and inorganic salts.

These polymers are found both naturally and synthetically made, and largely consist of ester, amide, and ether functional groups. Their properties and breakdown mechanism are determined by their exact structure.

These polymers are often synthesized by condensation reactions, ring opening polymerization, and metal catalysts. There are vast examples and applications of biodegradable polymers. Bio-based packaging materials have been introduced as a green alternative in the past decades, among which, edible films have gained more attention due to their environmentally-friendly characteristics, vast variety and availability, non-toxicity, and low cost. Bioenergy is renewable energy made available from materials derived from biological sources.

In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic biosphere and abiotic lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere compartments of Earth. Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter. Biosequestration is the capture and storage of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by biological processes. Birkenfeld is a town and the district seat of the Birkenfeld district in southwest Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

The Birmingham District is a geological area in the vicinity of Birmingham, Alabama where the raw materials for making steel, limestone, iron ore, and coal are found together in abundance. The Bisrampur is a large coal field located in the east of India in Chhattisgarh. Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt. Bixslade, occasionally written Bix Slade, is a short, steep-sided, valley in the Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire.

Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light. Black Creek is a long source tributary of Nescopeck Creek so part of the Susquehanna River drainage basin. Peabody Energy coal mining operations in the Black Mesa plateau of the Four Corners region in the western United States began in the s and continue today. Black sugar is a form of crystalline precipitate or a particulate pollution by-product unique from creosote caused by the burning of low grade coal in the —s.

Blackpanda is a private security and security consulting firm based in Hong Kong. A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer, bend, and cut cf. The Blackwater coal mine is a coal mine located in the Bowen Basin in Central Queensland, south of the town of Blackwater in the suburb of Stewarton.

Blagdon Lake lies in a valley at the northern edge of the Mendip Hills, close to the village of Blagdon and approximately south of Bristol, England. Blakeney Guildhall is a building in the coastal village of Blakeney in the north of the county of Norfolk.

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper. The blockade runners of the American Civil War were seagoing steam ships that were used to make their way through the Union blockade that extended some along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines and the lower Mississippi River. The Bloomsburg and Sullivan Railroad, e. The term blowpipe refers to one of several tools used to direct streams of gases into any of several working media.

Blue billy is a chemical or mineral deposit often encountered in contaminated land. Blue Flint Ethanol is an bioethanol producing company and a production plant with a same name, located in Underwood, North Dakota approximately north of Bismarck.

Blyth Power Station also known as Cambois Power Station refers to a pair of now demolished coal-fired power stations, which were located on the Northumberland coast in North East England. Bodinnick Bosdinek, meaning fortified dwelling is a riverside village in south-east Cornwall, in the United Kingdom.

Bog-wood, also known as abonos and morta, especially amongst pipe smokers, is a material from trees that have been buried in peat bogs and preserved from decay by the acidic and anaerobic bog conditions, sometimes for hundreds or even thousands of years. The Bogdanovskoye is a large coal field located in the east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast.

A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. A boilersuit is a loose fitting garment covering the whole body except for the head, hands and feet. According to the, it has a population of people. The Bolsover Colliery Company was a major mining concern established to extract coal from land owned by the Duke of Portland.

A former mill town, Bolton has been a production centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool and cotton-weaving tradition. The urbanisation and development of the town largely coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution.

Bolton was a 19th-century boomtown, and at its zenith in its cotton mills and 26 bleaching and dyeing works made it one of the largest and most productive centres of cotton spinning in the world. The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, and by the s cotton manufacture had virtually ceased in Bolton. It is surrounded by several smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, of which Bolton is the administrative centre.

The town of Bolton has a population of ,, whilst the wider metropolitan borough has a population of , Historically part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, and as a result was stormed by 3, Royalist troops led by Prince Rupert of the Rhine in In what became known as the Bolton Massacre, 1, residents were killed and were taken prisoner.

Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act National Thermal Power Station in kokrajhar is under construction power project located at Salakati near Kokrajhar in Kokrajhar district in Indian state of Assam. Also referred to as the Izmail class, they were laid down in late All dates used in this article are New Style Gregorian.

The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron B , aluminium Al , gallium Ga , indium In , thallium Tl , and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium Nh. The is a diesel-powered replica of a small-gauge steam locomotive installed in the city of Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan in as the original Iyo Railway.

Bottom ash is part of the non-combustible residue of combustion in a furnace or incinerator. Bowen is a coastal town and locality in the Whitsunday Region on the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The genus Bowenia includes two living and two fossil species of cycads in the family Stangeriaceae, sometimes placed in their own family Boweniaceae. The Bowes Railway, built by George Stephenson in , is the world's only operational preserved standard gauge cable railway system.

Bowmore is a distillery that produces scotch whisky on the isle of Islay, an island of the Inner Hebrides. A boxcar is a North American railroad car that is enclosed and generally used to carry freight. Boyne was a 1, ton, Nourse Line sailing ship that T. Oswald of Southampton built in BP plc stylised as bp , formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England. The British Railways standard class 2 T was a class of steam locomotive, one of the standard classes of the s.

The British Railways Standard Class 4 tank is a class of steam locomotive, one of the BR standard classes built during the s. The Standard class 6, otherwise known as the Clan Class, was a class of ''Pacific'' tender steam locomotive designed by Robert Riddles for use by British Railways.

Bracken Hall Countryside Centre and Museum is a children's museum, natural history education centre and nature centre established in at Bracken Hall on the edge of Baildon Moor, close to Shipley Glen in West Yorkshire. The Brakemen's Brotherhood was an early American railroad brotherhood established in A branch line is a secondary railway line which branches off a more important through route, usually a main line.

Rio Grande do Norte was a destroyer of the Brazilian Navy, serving from to Santa Catarina was a destroyer of the Brazilian Navy, serving from to Child Labor: An American History. Armonk, N. Sharpe, Breconshire or Brecknockshire was a constituency in Wales which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the English Parliament, and later to the Parliament of Great Britain and of the United Kingdom, between and Breitenbach is an Ortsgemeinde — a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality — in the Kusel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

Bridgend Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr Pen-y-bont , meaning "the end or head of the bridge on the Ogmore" is a town in Bridgend County Borough in Wales, west of the capital Cardiff and east of Swansea. Bridgewater Collieries originated from the coal mines on the Manchester Coalfield in Worsley in the historic county of Lancashire owned by Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater in the second half of the 18th century. Brier Hill is a neighborhood in Youngstown, Ohio, that was once viewed as the city's "Little Italy" district.

A briquette or briquet is a compressed block of coal dust or other combustible biomass material such as charcoal, sawdust, wood chips, peat, or paper used for fuel and kindling to start a fire. The Bristol Coalfield is a geologically complex coalfield in the west of England. Brithdir is a small village in the northern part of the Rhymney Valley near New Tredegar, in the county borough of Caerphilly, south Wales, and within the historic boundaries of Glamorgan.

British Columbia's carbon tax and accompanying tax shift has been in place since The British Iron Company was formed in to smelt and manufacture iron and to mine ironstone, coal, etc. Britt is a community in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the unincorporated township of Wallbridge in the Parry Sound District.

Broadstairs is a coastal town on the Isle of Thanet in the Thanet district of east Kent, England, about east of London. Brooketon Colliery, formerly known as Muara Coal Mine, was one of the underground coal mines in Brunei. Brownsville is a borough in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, United States, first settled in as the site of a trading post a few years after the pacification of the Iroquois enabled a post-Revolutionary war resumption of westward migration.

Bruce Mansfield Power Plant is a 2. Bryan K. Brymbo is a local government community, the lowest tier of local government, part of Wrexham County Borough in Wales. The Bude Canal was a canal built to serve the hilly hinterland in the Devon and Cornwall border territory in the United Kingdom, chiefly to bring lime-bearing sand for agricultural fertiliser. The Budryk coal mine is a large mine in the south of Poland in Ornontowice, Silesian Voivodeship, km south-west of the capital, Warsaw.

The Buenos Aires Western Railway in Spanish: Ferrocarril Oeste de Buenos Aires , inaugurated in the city of Buenos Aires on 29 August , was the first railway built in Argentina and the start of the extensive rail network which was developed over the following years. The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway was one of the more than ten thousand railroad companies founded in North America.

Building the Virginian Railway began as a project to create an -long short line railroad to provide access for shipping of untapped bituminous coal reserves in southern West Virginia early in the 20th century. Buildwas railway station was an important bustling junction station after the opening of the Severn Valley Railway on 1 February Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities.

Bulwell is an old English market town about northwest of Nottingham city centre, on the northern edge of the city. Bunbury is a coastal city in Western Australia, approximately south of the state capital, Perth. A bunghole or bungehole is a hole bored in a liquid-tight barrel to remove contents. Bunkering is the supply of fuel for use by ships, and includes the shipboard logistics of loading fuel and distributing it among available bunker tanks.

The Bunsen cell is a zinc-carbon primary cell colloquially called a "battery" composed of a zinc anode in dilute sulfuric acid separated by a porous pot from a carbon cathode in nitric or chromic acid. The Bureau of Land Management BLM is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than of public lands in the United States which constitutes one-eighth of the landmass of the country. The Burma Mines Railway is a gauge railway in Myanmar for the transportation of locally mined silver and lead ore to a smelter at Namtu.

Burning the Future: Coal in America is a documentary film produced and directed by David Novack. Burntisland Bruntisland is a royal burgh and parish in Fife, Scotland, on the northern shore of the Firth of Forth. Bustuchin Coal Mine is an open-pit mining exploitation, one of the largest in Romania located in Bustuchin, Gorj County with estimated coal reserves of The C class as designated in was a heterogeneous group of torpedo boat destroyers TBDs built for the Royal Navy in the lates.

The term cab forward refers to various rail and road vehicle designs that place the driver's compartment substantially farther towards the front than is common practice. Cadomin is a hamlet in the west-central Alberta, Canada within Yellowhead County. Caim is a Gaelic rendering of biblical 'Cain', who appears in a variation of the fantastical pedigree of Dardanus of Troy that is spun out in Lebor Bretnach, the Middle Irish language recension of the compilation called Historia Brittonum, known in the 9th century version by Nennius.

Calamites is a genus of extinct arborescent tree-like horsetails to which the modern horsetails genus Equisetum are closely related. Calcium magnesium acetate CMA is a deicer and can be used as an alternative to road salt. The Caledonian Railway Class were freight tender engines introduced in and designed by William Pickersgill. The Caledonian Railway Class was a class of tank locomotives built for dock shunting.

The Caledonian Railway Class were 3-cylinder steam locomotives that were used on the Caledonian Railway from The Calenberg Land Calenberger Land is a historic landscape southwest of Hanover in Germany, roughly formed by the countryside between the Leine and the Deister hills. The California Green Chemistry Initiative CGCI is a six-part initiative to reduce public and environmental exposure to toxins through improved knowledge and regulation of chemicals; two parts became statute in Calvin Pardee July 7, — March 18, was a businessman from Pennsylvania.

The Cambrian Railways Class 89s were an tender locomotive introduced by Jones in for general use over their system, upon grouping they became Great Western Railway class 15 and were reboilered from onwards with Swindon parts. Cambuslang Cammuslang, from Camas Lang is a suburban town on the south-eastern outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland.

The Camps for Climate Action are campaign gatherings similar to peace camps that take place to draw attention to, and act as a base for direct action against, major carbon emitters, as well as to develop ways to create a zero-carbon society. Army training facility constructed in for what became the 10th Mountain Division. Camp Morton also known as Camp Douglas was a coal mining encampment on Svalbard island in Norway also known as Spitsbergen.

The Campine French or De Kempen Dutch is a natural region situated chiefly in north-eastern Belgium and parts of the south-eastern Netherlands which once consisted mainly of extensive moors, tracts of sandy heath, and wetlands. Canada—Colombia relations are foreign relations between Canada and the Republic of Colombia. Canada and the Republic of China also known as Taiwan maintain unofficial bilateral relations since The Canadian Centre for Energy Information CCEI is a non-profit organization created by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers CAPP in to create a voice for the Canadian oil and gas industry on all aspects of the Canadian energy system from oil, natural gas, coal, geo-thermal, and hydroelectric power through to nuclear, solar, wind, and other sources of energy, with a focus on hydrocarbon energy sources.

New Brunswick applies to decisions of the Governor in Council of Canada i. Running from north north-east to south south-west, the canal runs parallel to the Orne River which feeds it, it is long, and comprises two locks. Digging began in , and when it was opened on August 23, it was only deep. It was deepened in The canal began with the dock at St. The canal is made up of a group of quays and docks. The current depth is, and the width can reach in the dock of Calix. The quay at Blainville-sur-Orne measures more than.

It acts as the fourth commercial French port for the importation of exotic wood, generally coming from the Gulf of Guinea. It also loads and unloads iron, fertilizer, coal, and construction material. The port exports cereals that are produced in the area and has a silo capacity of 33, tons. One of the two locks at the port of Ouistreham, at the mouth of the canal, can accommodate ships of more than length.

Also at Blainville is a Renault Trucks manufacturing plant. The plant is across the canal from the town, to the southeast, between the canal and the Orne River. Just across the river from the plant is the community of Colombelles. The canal was considered both tactically and strategically important during the opening phases of the Battle of Normandy, as it was located on the eastern flank of the Allied beachhead area.

The bridge was replaced in The Canonbie Coalfield is a small and largely concealed coalfield at Canonbie in the south of Scotland. Cantal is a department administrative province in south-central France, with its capital at Aurillac. Canyons of the Ancients National Monument is a national monument protecting an archaeologically-significant landscape located in the southwestern region of the U.

Cape Woolamai is a small town and headland at the south eastern tip of Phillip Island in Victoria, Australia. Capital costs are fixed, one-time expenses incurred on the purchase of land, buildings, construction, and equipment used in the production of goods or in the rendering of services.

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit. Carbochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of coals bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, graphite, and charcoal into useful products and raw materials.

Carbon from carbo "coal" is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. Carbon capture and storage CCS or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.

Carbon County is a county located in the U. As of the census, the population was 65, Another railroad first, the first railway to operate steam locomotives as traction engines and prime movers in the United States was the Beaver Meadows Railroad, which connected from mines west of Beaver Meadows and Weatherly on the opposite side of Broad Mountain along a water path through the Lehigh Gorge at Penn Haven Junction once supporting five railroads to the Lehigh Canal opposite Lehighton.

It is considered part of the state's Coal Region, though the eastern and northeastern sections are considered part of the Pocono Mountains—since they are east of the Lehigh River, the demarcation arbitrarily separating very similar mountain ridge and valley systems.

Carbon Energy Limited former name: Metex Resources Limited is an Australian global energy technology provider and services company with expertise in unconventional syngas extraction utilising its proprietary Underground Coal Gasification UCG technology. A carbon footprint is historically defined as the total emissions caused by an individual, event, organisation, or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent. The Carbon Market is the oldest and largest farmer's market in Cebu City, located in the Central Visayas region of the Philippines, and is a major tourist attraction.

Carbon monoxide CO is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. Carbon respiration also called carbon emissions and carbon releases is used in combination with carbon fixation to gauge carbon flux as CO2 between atmospheric carbon and the global carbon cycle. A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.

Carbon, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons. Carbon-based fuel is any fuel principally from the oxidation or burning of carbon. The Carbon-Thompson is a large coal field located in the western part of Canada in Alberta. Carbonia is a town and comune, which along with Iglesias was a co-capital of the former province of Carbonia-Iglesias, now suppressed and incorporated in the Province of South Sardinia.

It is located in the south-west of the island, at about an hour by car or train from the regional capital, Cagliari. The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago Mya , to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya. Carboniferous Limestone is a collective term for the succession of limestones occurring widely throughout Great Britain and Ireland that were deposited during the Dinantian Epoch of the Carboniferous Period.

Carbonization or carbonisation is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation. Cardinal Power Plant is a 1. The Carmichael coal mine is a proposed thermal coal mine in the north of the Galilee Basin in Central Queensland, Australia. Carniola Slovene, Kranjska; Krain; Carniola; Krajna was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia.

Caroline Still Anderson November 1, — June 1 or 2, was an American physician, educator, and activist. Carrington Power Station is a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine power station, which was completed in Autumn and began commercial operation on 18 September Carroll A.

Deering was a five-masted commercial schooner that was found run aground off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in Carrot River is a town located in northeast Saskatchewan population: in Canada. Carville Power Station refers to a pair of now partially demolished coal-fired power stations, situated in North East England on the north bank of the River Tyne at Wallsend. Castor Oyl is a fictional character, created in by cartoonist Elzie Crisler Segar for his comic strip Thimble Theatre, now known as Popeye.

Among the causes of World War II were Italian fascism in the s, Japanese militarism and invasion of China in the s, and especially the political takeover in of Germany by Hitler and his Nazi Party and its aggressive foreign policy.

Cave research, encompassing the study of speleology and biospeleology, is still in its infancy in India. Cellulosic ethanol is ethanol ethyl alcohol produced from cellulose the stringy fiber of a plant rather than from the plant's seeds or fruit.

Cement kilns are used for the pyroprocessing stage of manufacture of Portland and other types of hydraulic cement, in which calcium carbonate reacts with silica-bearing minerals to form a mixture of calcium silicates. A cenosphere is a lightweight, inert, hollow sphere made largely of silica and alumina and filled with air or inert gas, typically produced as a byproduct of coal combustion at thermal power plants.

Central Alabama is the region in the state of Alabama that stretches miles km from its western border with Mississippi to the eastern border with Georgia and miles km from the northern border of Cullman County to the Alabama River in southern Autauga County. A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building or portion of a building from one point to multiple rooms.

The Central Lowlands or Midland Valley is a geologically defined area of relatively low-lying land in southern Scotland. Ceptura Coal Mine is an open-pit mining exploitation it is considered one of the largest in the country of Romania located in Ceptura, Prahova County with estimated coal reserves of 18 million tonnes.

The Cesar is a large coal field located in the north of Colombia in Cesar department. Chadderton Power Station refers to a series of two coal-fired power stations, which were situated at Chadderton, Greater Manchester in North West England.

Chandrapur is a municipal corporation in Chandrapur district, Maharashtra state, India. Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China. Channahon is a village in Grundy and Will counties in the U. Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charles H.

Marshall was a ton packet ship built by William H. Webb in The Charles H. Spencer was a stern-wheel steamboat that was briefly used on the Colorado River to transport coal for gold refining operations at Lee's Ferry, Arizona. The Charles P. Charles W. February 15, — March 2, was an American businessman who controlled an international mining and metals conglomerate, as well as a major owner in Thoroughbred horse racing, and a candidate in the New Jersey State Senate Elections.

Charleston is the most populous city in, and the capital of, the U. A checkweighman occasionally checkmeasurer or checkweigher is a person who is responsible for weighing coal or another mined substance, and thereby determining the payment due to each worker.

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei that is, the same atomic number, or Z. The Compagnie des chemins de fer du Midi. The Chernobyl disaster, also referred to as the Chernobyl accident, was a catastrophic nuclear accident. The Chervonoarmiiska—Zakhidna coal mine is a large coal mine located in the south-east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast.

The Chervonokutska coal mine is an underground coal mine in the Luhansk region of Ukraine. The Chervonolymanska coal mine is a large coal mine located in the south-east of Ukraine in Donetsk Oblast. The Chesapeake and Ohio class M-1 was a fleet of three steam turbine locomotives built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway in — for service on the Chessie streamliner.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway's class L-2 comprised eight coal-fired "Hudson" type steam locomotives numbered — and built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway was a Class I railroad formed in in Virginia from several smaller Virginia railroads begun in the 19th century. Chessie System, Inc. Chesterfield County is a county located just south of Richmond in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Chesterton is a small, former mining village, located in the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffordshire, England. Charles, and Elgin, Illinois. Lautaro was a sailing frigate of the Chilean Navy, originally purchased for use as a hulk, but later put into service as a training ship. The Chiltern Main Line is an inter-urban, regional and commuter railway, part of the British railway system. A chimney fire is the combustion burning of residue deposits referred to as soot or creosote, on the inner surfaces of chimney tiles, flue liners, stove pipes, etc.

The China railways JS class was a type of tender steam locomotive manufactured for use on mainline freight trains, as well as for heavy shunting. The China Railways KD7 type steam locomotive was a type of mainline general purpose steam locomotive. The China Railways LD1 class steam locomotive was a class of streamlined T tank steam locomotives for passenger trains operated by the China Railway. China Shenhua Energy Company Limited known as Shenhua or China Shenhua or Shenhua Energy is the largest coal mining state-owned enterprise in Mainland China, and the largest coal mining enterprise in the world.

China Wind Systems, Inc. Chirimiri Coalfield is located in Koriya district in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh in the valley of the Hasdeo River, a tributary of the Mahanadi. Chita Oblast p was a federal subject of Russia an oblast in southeast Siberia, Russia. Chobham Common is a area of temperate lowland heath, a globally rare and threatened habitat due to rare soil type, in Surrey, England.

Chorley is a market town in Lancashire, England, north of Wigan, south west of Blackburn, north west of Bolton, south of Preston and north west of Manchester. Christopher "Chris" Cline born July 5, is an American mining entrepreneur and philanthropist. A Christmas stocking is an empty sock or sock-shaped bag that is hung on Christmas Eve so that Santa Claus or Father Christmas can fill it with small toys, candy, fruit, coins or other small gifts when he arrives.

The Chuitna Coal Project is a proposed coal strip mine that, if granted state and federal permits, would be built about southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in an area known as the Beluga Coal Fields near the Chuitna River and the small communities of Tyonek and Beluga in upper Cook Inlet.

City of Adelaide is a clipper ship, built in Sunderland, England, and launched on 7 May City of Washington was an American merchant steamship that aided in rescuing the crew of the USS ''Maine'' when it exploded in the harbor of Havana, Cuba, in Civitavecchia meaning "ancient town" is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Rome in the central Italian region of Lazio. The Clackmannan Group is the name given to a suite of rocks of late Dinantian and Namurian age laid down during the Carboniferous period in the Midland Valley of Scotland.

Clarke Thomas Reed born is a businessman and investor from Greenville, Mississippi, who was from to the state chairman of the Mississippi Republican Party. A classification yard American and Canadian English or marshalling yard British, Hong Kong, Indian, Australian and Canadian English is a railway yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railway cars onto one of several tracks. Clayton-Tamm is a traditionally Irish-American neighborhood located near the western border of St.

The Clean Air Act 42 U. Sir Clement Clerke, 1st Baronet died was an important but financially unsuccessful English entrepreneur, whose greatest achievement was the application of the reverberatory furnace cupola to smelting lead and copper, and to remelting pig iron for foundry purposes. Clermont is an agricultural town and locality in the Isaac Region, Queensland, Australia.

Cleveland-Cliffs, Inc. Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming controversy. Because of global warming, there has been concern in the United States and internationally, that the country should reduce total greenhouse gas which is relatively high per capita and is the second largest in the world after China, as of On a per-person basis, Wyoming emits more carbon dioxide than any other state or any other country: of it per capita a year, because of burning coal, which provides nearly all of the state's electrical power.

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change. Climate change mitigation scenarios are possible futures in which global warming is reduced by deliberate actions, such as a comprehensive switch to energy sources other than fossil fuels.

Global climate change was first addressed in United States policy beginning in the early s. Clinker is a general name given to waste from industrial processes, particularly those that involve smelting metals, welding, burning fossil fuels and use of a blacksmith's forge, which commonly causes a large buildup of clinker around the tuyere. Clive Frederick Palmer born 26 March is an Australian businessman and former politician.

A clothes iron is a roughly triangular surface that, when heated, is used to press clothes to remove creases. Cloud Peak Energy Inc. Clydach is a large village and community in the City and County of Swansea, Wales, falling within Clydach ward and the Llangyfelach Parish. Coal analysis techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals. A coal ball is a type of concretion, varying in shape from an imperfect sphere to a flat-lying, irregular slab.

A coal bin, coal store or coal bunker is a storage container for coal awaiting use or transportation. A coal breaker is a coal processing plant which breaks coal into various useful sizes. This article includes lists representing proven reserves and production of coal by country.

Coal combustion products CCPs , also called coal combustion wastes CCWs or coal combustion residuals CCRs , are categorized in four groups, each based on physical and chemical forms derived from coal combustion methods and emission controls. A coal drop is an elevated railway track designed to allow material to fall freely between the rails onto the ground beneath.

Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal. The London Coal Exchange was situated on the north side of Thames Street in the City of London, nearly opposite to Old Billingsgate Market, occupying three different structures from to Coal forests were the vast swathes of wetlands that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous Pennsylvanian and Permian times.

Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system. A coal hole is a hatch in the pavement sidewalk, in US usage above an underground coal bunker. Coal homogenization refers to the process of mixing coal to reduce the variance of the product supplied. China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and is the largest user of coal-derived electricity.

Coal is one of the largest sources of energy in Russia, accounting for South Africa produces in excess of million tonnes of coal estimate and consumes almost three quarters of that domestically. Coal India Limited CIL is an Indian state-controlled coal mining company headquartered in Kolkata, West Bengal, India and the largest coal producer company in the world and a maharatna company. Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals.

The coal measures is a lithostratigraphical term for the coal-bearing part of the Upper Carboniferous System. The Coal Measures Group is a lithostratigraphical term coined to refer to the coal-bearing succession of rock strata which occur in the United Kingdom within the Westphalian Stage of the Carboniferous Period. Coal mining in Brazil is the country's largest source of non-renewable energy, and is an important part of Brazil's energy economy.

Coal mining in Wyoming has long been a significant part of the state's economy. Coal Nunatak is a flat-topped rock mass with steep cliffs facing south, standing southwest of Corner Cliffs on the southeast coast of Alexander Island, Antarctica.

A coal pier is a transloading facility designed for the transfer of coal between rail and ship. Coal pipelines are pipelines used to transport coal from where it is mined to where it is consumed. Coal pollution mitigation, often referred to by the public relations term clean coal, is a series of systems and technologies that seek to mitigate the pollution and other environmental effects normally associated with the burning though not the mining or processing of coal, which is widely regarded as the dirtiest of the common fuels for industrial processes and power generation.

A coal "washer" in Eastern Kentucky A modern coal breaker in Mahanoy City, Pennsylvania combines washing, crushing, grading, sorting, stockpiling, and shipping in one facility built into a stockpile of anthracite coal below a mountain top strip mine A coal preparation plant CPP; also known as a coal handling and preparation plant CHPP , coal handling plant, prep plant, tipple or wash plant is a facility that washes coal of soil and rock, crushes it into graded sized chunks sorting , stockpiles grades preparing it for transport to market, and more often than not, also loads coal into rail cars, barges, or ships.

The Coal Region is a historically important coal-mining area in Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Ridge-and-valley Appalachian Mountains, comprising Lackawanna, Luzerne, Columbia, Carbon, Schuylkill, Northumberland, and the extreme northeast corner of Dauphin counties.

A coal scuttle, sometimes spelled coalscuttle and also called a hod, "coal bucket", or "coal pail", is a bucket-like container for holding a small, intermediate supply of coal convenient to an indoor coal-fired stove or heater. A coal-seam fire refers to natural burning of an outcrop or underground coal seam. The coal seams worked in the South Yorkshire Coalfield lie mainly in the middle coal measures.

A coal shovel is a shovel designed for shoveling coal, coke or similar fuels, and on occasions does a double duty removing ash from the fireplace, firebox or furnace. Coal slurry is a mixture of solids mined coal and liquids usually water produced by a coal preparation plant. Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.

A coal trimmer or trimmer is a position within the engineering department of a coal-fired ship which involves all coal handling tasks starting with the loading of coal into the ship and ending with the delivery of the coal to the stoker.

Coal mining regions are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world. Coal-water slurry fuel is a combustible mixture of fine coal particles suspended in water. Coalbed methane extraction CBM extraction is a method for extracting methane from a coal deposit.

The era of the steam warship powered exclusively by coal was relatively brief, lasting from until A coaling tower, coal stage or coaling station is a facility used to load coal as fuel into railway steam locomotives. Selling, carrying, bringing, or taking coal s to Newcastle is an idiom of British origin describing a pointless action.

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis CWP , also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long-term exposure to coal dust. Cobalt extraction refers to the techniques used to extract cobalt from its ores and other compound ores. The Cobequid Mountains, also sometimes referred to as the Cobequid Hills, is a Canadian mountain range located in Nova Scotia in the mainland portion of the province. Cockenzie power station was a coal-fired power station in East Lothian, Scotland.

Co-firing is the combustion of two or more different types of materials at the same time. Cogeneration or combined heat and power CHP is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.

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